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Bologna process: Slovakia


There are three different types of institutions that deliver higher education in Slovakia, namely public, state and private institutions. All three forms provide degree level programmes although there are differences as to the extent to which they cover the full range of undergraduate and postgraduate cycles.

The Bologna Declaration underpins the structure of programmes in Slovakia with three cycles of study – Bachelors, Masters and Doctoral cycles – while studying within the state and public universities is free of charge for residents of Slovakia and of the EU.

Oversight of the sector is provided by the Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic (Ministerstvo školstva SR)

Overview of Types of Universities and Qualifications at Undergraduate and Post graduate Level

(i) Structure

Higher education institutions can be classified into a number of categories with the generic level being a Univerzity (University). Specialist institutions exist for a number of subjects such as Pedagogické Univerzity (University of Education) or Technické Univerzity (University of Technology) as well as [police and military academies. There are indeed specialist institutions for economics called Ekonomické Univerzity (University of Economics)

(ii) Access

There are a number of routes into the first cycle of study at a university based on the type of secondary school or study programme undertaken up to the age of 18 or 19. Gymnázium provide a Secondary School Leaving Certificate (vysvedčenie o maturitnej skúške) while more specialist schools offer a School Leaving Certificate Specialized Secondary in areas such as agriculture and health care but includes economics.

Alongside these school leaving certificates, many universities hold entrance examinations for entry to Bachelors degrees. In effect entry is governed at the most straightforward level by this maturita examination and clearly entry to the second cycle requires successful completion of cycle one and a Bachelors degree.

Entry to the third cycle requires successful completion of cycle two.

(iii) Qualifications

The principles of the Bologna Declaration help shape the provision of higher education in Slovakia in that institutions provide study programmes at three levels:

  • First Level – Batchelor’s ("Bakalár") level which varies from three or four years of study with the later including such subjects as architecture, fine art and design.
  • Second Level - Masters (Magisterské, Inžinierske, Doktorské štúdium) (the “Magisters”, “Engineers” and “Doctors” study programme). Again a range of lengths of period of study are apparent but it must be at least a year and a maximum of three years.
  • Third Level - PhD (Doktorandské štúdium). The expected length of study is a minimum of three years and a maximum of four years. There are exceptions for example in the medical sciences where an examination can be held after five years.

Universities in Slovakia (teaching either economics or business)

Public schools of higher education

  1. Matej Bel University
  2. Comenius University
  3. University of Economics in Bratislava
  4. Selye János University
  5. Alexander Dubček University of Trenčín

Private schools of higher education

  1. College of Public Administration Economics and Management
  2. International Business College ISM Slovakia


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