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Bologna process: Romania


Higher education in Romania is overseen by the Ministry of Education and Research and of the 112 universities in Romania, 54 are public and the rest are run by the private sector but such universities need to receive accreditation from the Ministry. Whatever the governance, there are many forms of higher education institutions provided and include universities, academies and colleges. The length of study varies from 3 years of short university education offered, 4-6 years of long university education and 1-2 years of postgraduate university education. A separate body, the National Council for Academic Evaluation and Accreditation, provides the regular review of quality assurance.

Overview of Types of Universities and Qualifications at Undergraduate and Post graduate Level

(i) Structure

Higher education in Romania is classified into six different forms:

Universitate (University): generally the dominant form of provision and can be broad based in terms of discipline coverage. Also engaged in research activities.

Academie (Academy): reflecting a more specialised type of activity in one area general area (e.g. music).

Universitate Politehnică (Polytechnical University): these were former polytechnics which saw their status change in 1990 and tend to focus on technical/vocational study.

Institut (Institute): reflecting study based on professional experience and thus degrees are professional in nature.

Colegiu Universitar (University College): such institutions offer a diploma for 2-3 year courses. Students graduating cannot go on to take a Masters (second cycle) programme.

Postgraduate schools independent from universities.

Higher education programmes can be classified as either short-term (ending in the diplomă de absolvire/graduation diploma) or long-term (diplomă de licenţă/licensure diploma). Universities can offer both lengths of programmes based on their specialisms.

(ii) Access

To gain entrance to short or long term programmes students must have the Diploma de Bacalaureat as a minimum. In additoon there is a competitive examination that must be passed called the Examen de Admitere. Generally, an overall score of 5 is required for higher education programmes.

Graduates from scolii profesionale (professional schools) do not have the right to apply for postsecondary education programmes.

At the end of the undergraduate programme, students take a final comprehensive exam called “Licenta”.

(iii) Qualifications

The delivery of degrees is through many different institutions but the structure of provision is based on the Bologna principles. As such there are three cycles of study.

  • first cycle of 180 to 240 ECTS[1] (three to four years) leads to a bachelor’s degree (diploma de licenta)
  • A second cycle of 60 to 120 ECTS (one to two years) leads to a master’s degree Diploma de Studii Aprofundante (diploma of advanced study) or the diploma de master (master diploma).
  • A third cycle of 120 to 240 ECTS leads to a PhD degree (called the Diploma de Doctor)

Universities in Romania (teaching either economics or business)

Public institutions of higher education

  1. University of Bucharest
  2. Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies
  3. National School of Administration and Political Science of Bucharest
  4. 1 Decembrie 1918 University, Alba Iulia
  5. Aurel Vlaicu University of Arad
  6. University of Bacău
  7. Northern University
  8. Transylvania University of Braşov
  9. Babeş-Bolyai University
  10. University of Craiova
  11. University of Galaţi
  12. University of Iaşi
  13. University of Oradea
  14. University of Petroşani
  15. University of Piteşti
  16. Eftimie Murgu University of Reşiţa
  17. Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu
  18. Ştefan cel Mare University of Suceava
  19. Valahia University of Târgovişte
  20. Constantin Brâncuşi University
  21. Petru Maior University of Târgu Mureş
  22. West University of Timişoara

Private institutions of higher education (Accredited)

  1. Dimitrie Cantemir Christian University
  2. Titu Maiorescu University
  3. Nicolae Titulescu University
  4. Romanian-American University
  5. Hyperion University
  6. Spiru Haret University
  7. Bioterra University
  8. Athenaeum University
  9. Artifex University of Bucharest
  10. Vasile Goldiş West University of Arad
  11. George Bacovia University of Bacău
  12. University of Brasov
  13. Bogdan Vodă University of Cluj-Napoca
  14. Andrei Şaguna University of Constanţa
  15. Danubius University of Galaţi
  16. I.C. Dragan European University, Lugoj
  17. Petre Andrei University of Iaşi
  18. Mihail Kogălniceanu University of Iaşi
  19. Emanuel University of Oradea
  20. Constantin Brancoveanu” University of Pitesti
  21. Commercial Academy of Satu Mare
  22. Romanian-German University of Sibiu
  23. Dimitrie Cantemir University of Târgu Mureş
  24. Tibiscus University of Timişoara

Temporarily authorized to function

  1. British Romanian University
  2. Sapientia University
  3. Mihai Viteazul University
  4. Gheorghe Zane University
  5. Agora University
  6. Alma Mater University of Sibiu
  7. Ioan Slavici University of Timişoara
  8. University of Wales, Romania
  9. Tomis University

Temporarily authorized to function and undergoing accreditation:

  1. Romanian Banking Institute
  2. Avram Iancu University
  3. Partium Christian University
  4. Institute of Business Administration in Bucharest


[1] European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) is a standard for comparing the study attainment and performance of students of higher education across the European Union and other collaborating European countries. For successfully completed studies, ECTS credits are awarded. One academic year corresponds to 60 ECTS-credits that are equivalent to 1500-1800 hours of study in all countries irrespective of standard or qualification type and is used to facilitate transfer and progression throughout the Union.

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