Bologna process: Romania
Higher education in Romania is overseen by the Ministry of Education and Research and of the 112 universities in Romania, 54 are public and the rest are run by the private sector but such universities need to receive accreditation from the Ministry. Whatever the governance, there are many forms of higher education institutions provided and include universities, academies and colleges. The length of study varies from 3 years of short university education offered, 4-6 years of long university education and 1-2 years of postgraduate university education. A separate body, the National Council for Academic Evaluation and Accreditation, provides the regular review of quality assurance.
Overview of Types of Universities and Qualifications at Undergraduate and Post graduate Level
Higher education in Romania is classified into six different forms:
Universitate (University): generally the dominant form of provision and can be broad based in terms of discipline coverage. Also engaged in research activities.
Academie (Academy): reflecting a more specialised type of activity in one area general area (e.g. music).
Universitate Politehnică (Polytechnical University): these were former polytechnics which saw their status change in 1990 and tend to focus on technical/vocational study.
Institut (Institute): reflecting study based on professional experience and thus degrees are professional in nature.
Colegiu Universitar (University College): such institutions offer a diploma for 2-3 year courses. Students graduating cannot go on to take a Masters (second cycle) programme.
Postgraduate schools independent from universities.
Higher education programmes can be classified as either short-term (ending in the diplomă de absolvire/graduation diploma) or long-term (diplomă de licenţă/licensure diploma). Universities can offer both lengths of programmes based on their specialisms.
To gain entrance to short or long term programmes students must have the Diploma de Bacalaureat as a minimum. In additoon there is a competitive examination that must be passed called the Examen de Admitere. Generally, an overall score of 5 is required for higher education programmes.
Graduates from scolii profesionale (professional schools) do not have the right to apply for postsecondary education programmes.
At the end of the undergraduate programme, students take a final comprehensive exam called “Licenta”.
The delivery of degrees is through many different institutions but the structure of provision is based on the Bologna principles. As such there are three cycles of study.
- first cycle of 180 to 240 ECTS (three to four years) leads to a bachelor’s degree (diploma de licenta)
- A second cycle of 60 to 120 ECTS (one to two years) leads to a master’s degree Diploma de Studii Aprofundante (diploma of advanced study) or the diploma de master (master diploma).
- A third cycle of 120 to 240 ECTS leads to a PhD degree (called the Diploma de Doctor)
Universities in Romania (teaching either economics or business)
Public institutions of higher education
- University of Bucharest
- Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies
- National School of Administration and Political Science of Bucharest
- 1 Decembrie 1918 University, Alba Iulia
- Aurel Vlaicu University of Arad
- University of Bacău
- Northern University
- Transylvania University of Braşov
- Babeş-Bolyai University
- University of Craiova
- University of Galaţi
- University of Iaşi
- University of Oradea
- University of Petroşani
- University of Piteşti
- Eftimie Murgu University of Reşiţa
- Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu
- Ştefan cel Mare University of Suceava
- Valahia University of Târgovişte
- Constantin Brâncuşi University
- Petru Maior University of Târgu Mureş
- West University of Timişoara
Private institutions of higher education (Accredited)
- Dimitrie Cantemir Christian University
- Titu Maiorescu University
- Nicolae Titulescu University
- Romanian-American University
- Hyperion University
- Spiru Haret University
- Bioterra University
- Athenaeum University
- Artifex University of Bucharest
- Vasile Goldiş West University of Arad
- George Bacovia University of Bacău
- University of Brasov
- Bogdan Vodă University of Cluj-Napoca
- Andrei Şaguna University of Constanţa
- Danubius University of Galaţi
- I.C. Dragan European University, Lugoj
- Petre Andrei University of Iaşi
- Mihail Kogălniceanu University of Iaşi
- Emanuel University of Oradea
- Constantin Brancoveanu” University of Pitesti
- Commercial Academy of Satu Mare
- Romanian-German University of Sibiu
- Dimitrie Cantemir University of Târgu Mureş
- Tibiscus University of Timişoara
Temporarily authorized to function
- British Romanian University
- Sapientia University
- Mihai Viteazul University
- Gheorghe Zane University
- Agora University
- Alma Mater University of Sibiu
- Ioan Slavici University of Timişoara
- University of Wales, Romania
- Tomis University
Temporarily authorized to function and undergoing accreditation:
- Romanian Banking Institute
- Avram Iancu University
- Partium Christian University
- Institute of Business Administration in Bucharest
 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) is a standard for comparing the study attainment and performance of students of higher education across the European Union and other collaborating European countries. For successfully completed studies, ECTS credits are awarded. One academic year corresponds to 60 ECTS-credits that are equivalent to 1500-1800 hours of study in all countries irrespective of standard or qualification type and is used to facilitate transfer and progression throughout the Union.