# Appendix I: Example of Co-operative Learning Exercise

Appendix to "Comparing Student Performance Using Cooperative Learning" by Daniel R. Marburger

You are in charge of determining production for Country X. You have four hours available for the production of jars of peanut butter and jars of jelly. Your workers are capable of producing 6 jars of peanut butter per hour or 2 jars of jelly per hour. The first step in determining how best to allocate your time is to lay out your production possibilities information.

Time spent on
peanut butter
Jars of peanut butter Time spent on
jelly
Jars of jelly
0 hours _____ 4 hours _____
1 hour _____ 3 hours _____
2 hours _____ 2 hours _____
3 hours _____ 1 hour _____
4 hours _____ 0 hours _____

Having laid out the available possibilities, your next step is to figure out the optimal production of these two goods. The people of country X like to eat peanut butter sandwiches and they like to eat jelly sandwiches, but they really like to eat peanut butter and jelly sandwiches.

To figure out the best allocation of your 4 hours, credit 4 points for each peanut butter/jelly combination and 1 point for each leftover jar of peanut butter or jar of jelly.

Time spent on
peanut butter
Jars of peanut butter Time spent on
jelly
Jars of jellyTotal Points
0 hours _____ 4 hours _____ _____
1 hour _____ 3 hours _____ _____
2 hours _____ 2 hours _____ _____
3 hours _____ 1 hour _____ _____
4 hours _____ 0 hours _____ _____
Indicate the optimal allocation of time: ______
Indicate the total points that corresponds to this production level: ______

You are in charge of determining production for Country Y. You have four hours available for the production of jars of peanut butter and jars of jelly. Your workers are capable of producing 1 jar of peanut butter per hour or 1 jar of jelly per hour. The first step in determining how to best allocate your time is to lay out your production possibilities information.

Time spent on
peanut butter
Jars of peanut butter Time spent on
jelly
Jars of jelly
0 hours _____ 4 hours _____
1 hour _____ 3 hours _____
2 hours _____ 2 hours _____
3 hours _____ 1 hour _____
4 hours _____ 0 hours _____

Having laid out the available possibilities, your next step is to figure out the optimal production of these two goods. The people of Country Y like to eat peanut butter sandwiches and they like to eat jelly sandwiches, but they really like to eat peanut butter and jelly sandwiches.

To figure out the best allocation of your 4 hours, credit 4 points for each peanut butter/jelly combination and 1 point for each leftover jar of peanut butter or jar of jelly.

Time spent on
peanut butter
Jars of peanut butter Time spent on
jelly
Jars of jellyTotal Points
0 hours _____ 4 hours _____ _____
1 hour _____ 3 hours _____ _____
2 hours _____ 2 hours _____ _____
3 hours _____ 1 hour _____ _____
4 hours _____ 0 hours _____ _____
Indicate the optimal allocation of time: ______
Indicate the total points that corresponds to this production level: ______

Now that you have identified the best you can do as a self-sufficient country, pair up with a group from the other country and compare your production capabilities.

Which country has the absolute advantage in peanut butter production?

_____________________________________________________________________

Which country has the absolute advantage in jelly production?

_____________________________________________________________________

Based on these answers, do you believe that Country Y has anything to gain by trading with Country X?

_____________________________________________________________________

Based on these answers, do you believe that Country X has anything to gain by trading with Country Y?

_____________________________________________________________________

Look at each other's production possibilities information and determine whether it's possible to engage in a trade that will make you better off. Because you have the ability to be self-sufficient, DO NOT agree to any deal that will make you worse off than if you were self-sufficient.

### Final Contract - Option A

Countries X and Y were unable to identify a trade that would be mutually beneficial. Consequently, each country has decided to remain self-sufficient. The below terms show the production allocation of both countries and the standard of living (total points) enjoyed by its residents.

#### Country X

 Total production of peanut butter: _______ Total production of jelly: _______ Standard of living (total points): Number of peanut butter and jelly sandwiches consumed: _______ _______ (point value) Number of leftover peanut butter sandwiches consumed: _______ _______ (point value) Number of leftover jelly sandwiches consumed: _______ _______ (point value) Total standard of living: _______ (Total point value)

#### Country Y

 Total production of peanut butter: _______ Total production of jelly: _______ Standard of living (total points): Number of peanut butter and jelly sandwiches consumed: _______ _______ (point value) Number of leftover peanut butter sandwiches consumed: _______ _______ (point value) Number of leftover jelly sandwiches consumed: _______ _______ (point value) Total standard of living: _______ (Total point value)

### Final Contract - Option B

Countries X and Y have agreed to abide by the contract terms described below:

Country X will produce _____ jars of peanut butter and _____ jars of jelly in its four hours.

Country Y will produce _____ jars of peanut butter and _____ jars of jelly in its four hours.

Country X agrees to trade _____ jars of ________________ in exchange for _____ jars of _______________ from Country Y.

The below table indicates the standard of living to be enjoyed by each country after the exchange has been completed:

#### Country X

 Standard of living (total points): Number of peanut butter and jelly sandwiches consumed: _______ _______ (point value) Number of leftover peanut butter sandwiches consumed: _______ _______ (point value) Number of leftover jelly sandwiches consumed: _______ _______ (point value) Total standard of living: _______ (Total point value)

#### Country Y

 Standard of living (total points): Number of peanut butter and jelly sandwiches consumed: _______ _______ (point value) Number of leftover peanut butter sandwiches consumed: _______ _______ (point value) Number of leftover jelly sandwiches consumed: _______ _______ (point value) Total standard of living: _______ (Total point value)