The Handbook for Economics Lecturers

Albanese, M. & Mitchell, S. (1993) 'Problem-based learning: a review of literature on its outcomes and implementation issues', Academic Medicine, 68, No.1, pp52-81. 

Barrows, H. (1986) ‘A taxonomy of problem-based learning methods’, Medical Education, 20, pp. 481–6. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2923.1986.tb01386.x

Becker, W. (1997) ‘Teaching economics to undergraduates’, Journal of Economic Literature, 35, pp.1347–73. JSTOR:

Becker, W. and Watts, M. (1996) ‘Chalk and talk: a national survey on teaching undergraduate economics’, American Economic Review, 86, no.2, Papers and Proceedings, pp. 448–53. JSTOR:

Bouhuijs, P. & Gijselaers, W. (1993) 'Course construction in problem-based learning' in Bouhuijs, P. & Schmidt, H. (1993), Problem-Based Learning as an Educational Strategy, Network Publications, Maastricht, ch. 5.

Cohn, E. & Cohn, S. (1994) 'Graphs and learning in principles of economics', American Economic Review, 84, No. 2, Papers & Proceedings, pp 197-200.

Dochy, F., Segers, M., Van den Bossche, P., Gijbels, D. (2003) 'Effects of problem-based learning: A meta-analysis', Learning and Instruction, 13, pp 533-568.

Dolmans, D., Gijselaers, W., Schmidt, H. and van der Meer, S. (1993) ‘Problem effectiveness in a course using problem-based learning', Academic Medicine, 68, no. 3, pp. 207–13.

Forsythe, F. (2002) 'The role of problem-based learning and information technology in a spoon-fed undergraduate environment', in Johannessen, T., Pedersen, A. & Petersen, K. (eds), Educational Innovation in Economics and Business, 6, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Amsterdam, pp 147-161.

Gibbs, G. (1992) Improving the Quality of Student Learning, Technical and Educational Services Ltd, Bristol.

HESA. (2009) Table 1a - Participation of under-represented groups in higher education: Young full-time first degree entrants 2007/08, at:

Longuevan, C. (2000) ‘Using PBL to teach economics at University of California, Irvine’, at:

Thomas, J. (2000) 'A review of research on project-based learning', The Autodesk Foundation, San Rafael, California, at:

Van den Bossche, P., Segers, M., Gijbels, D., Dochy, F. (2004) 'Effects of problem-based learning in business education: a comparison between a PBL and a conventional approach', in Ottewill, R. et al (Eds), Educational Innovation in Economics and Business, Volume VIII, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, pp205-227.

Vernon, D. & Blake, R. (1993) 'Does problem-based learning work? A meta-analysis of evaluative research', Academic Medicine, 68, pp550-563.

Woods, D. (1996) Problem-based Learning: Helping Your Students Gain the Most from PBL, originally published in 1994 by McMaster University Bookstore, Ontario. This 3rd edition, March 1996, at: