Many international students come to the UK to study economics attracted both by the history of economics in the UK and the excellent teaching and research reputation of many Economics departments. The following quotes* suggest that international students enjoy the intellectual challenge of studying in institutions with a high reputation and believe that Economics will give them the opportunity to pursue a wide range of good careers in either the private or public sector:
When asked about the best aspects of their Economics course in the UK, students include the quality of teaching and the international environment*:
However, international competition for quality and cost-effective Economics education is rapidly increasing, and the sector faces new challenges in its attempt to remain an attractive destination for international students (see for example, Sastry and Bekhradnia, 2007). In recent years, many UK HE institutions have attempted to raise their international profile by recruiting a larger share of international students. The increase in the number of international students provides benefits but also poses challenges. UK Economics lecturers have varied responses to the growing number of international students in the classes, with some considering this as beneficial to students’ learning and others highlighting the challenges created+.
The importance of motivation in academic learning is recognised by many authors (for recent examples see Maclellan, 2005 and Lanzt, 2007). So, what is motivation and why should we consider it within the context of international students in Economics? As a working definition, motivation can be considered as ‘that which gives purpose and direction to behaviour’x;and motivating, as ‘providing incentives’. x
When we ask cohorts of international and UK lecturers and teachers ‘what constitutes a good lecturer or teacher?’, the responses show that irrespective of cultural background, there is an expectancy that the lecturer or teacher is fundamental in motivating students to learn. There is a shared understanding of the characteristics of a motivational lecturer or teacher that includes being passionate, enthusiastic and inspirational, combined with being knowledgeable, clear, structured, available and approachable. Even choice of a particular career direction (apart from status and money!) can be influenced by a motivational lecturer or teacher. Equally, a number of postgraduate students choose to do research with the academic they find to be most motivating – including having an appealing website or writing in a manner perceived to be enthusiastic. In our experience, no subject in Economics is inherently impossible to make interesting: any subject can be made clear, interesting and motivating or, conversely, confusing, boring and de-motivating.
As lecturers and teachers we are potential role models to all students, and our behaviour ‘can have a significant impact on students’ Lantz (2007). We can therefore mediate openness to diverse ways of being, and contribute to developing and sustaining academic environments where international students feel valued, included and motivated. However, we may inadvertently propagate unhelpful stereotypes regarding other cultures.
Previous to their arrival in the UK, international students will have been successful learners; their skills, knowledge and command of English are to the level required by UK admission criteria, and they will have received advice regarding the challenges of living and studying in the UK. But the challenges encountered when they arrive are often manifested in such unexpected ways that students may struggle to settle into their academic lives. The opinions of individual international students are very important since those who are motivated by the learning and research environments they experience in the UK can become excellent ambassadors and in turn motivate others. This is implicit in the following quotes:*
Students can now share their thoughts in web-based discussion groups, blogs and websites aimed at ranking the quality of lectures and teachers, hence influencing the choices of other students.
Whilst UK universities have for many years organised activities specific to welcoming international students, particularly the induction week, there tends to be a separation of the social from the curricular, in that the presence of international students is visible and explicit in specifically designed social occasions, but invisible and barely implicit in learning and teaching contexts. Regarding this issue it is interesting to comment on the findings from the 2004 and 2008 Alumni Survey (Economics Graduates): the perceptions of alumni regarding their own awareness of cross-cultural issues has increased markedly from 2004 to 2008, but their perception of the role played by the degree itself for awareness of cross-cultural issues has not changed much. These results strongly suggest that there is a lot that can be done within learning and teaching of Economics to further support cross-cultural awareness and fluency of Economics graduates.
By developing an understanding of international students that acknowledges them as able, experienced learners who have been successful in other learning contexts, we can work from the constructive premise that the challenges faced are a result of conflicts between the expectations of the parties involved and their actual experience. Developing adequate approaches will facilitate the learning of international and UK students alike and nurture collaborative relationships that are beneficial for all. International students can be an invaluable asset if we facilitate and value their participation in the learning community. Staff and students alike can gain wider, richer and internationalised perspectives of Economics, and of personal and social choices linked to culture.
Motivating international students requires that we shift our thinking and practice to anticipate, differentiate and respond to their needs. International students can then benefit consistently from equivalent opportunities available to UK students, are more likely to feel valued and included, and are thus more likely to succeed. If we attend to the particular requirements of international learning contexts, we can develop understandings and skills to motivate all students studying or researching Economics in the UK.
* Quotations marked with * are drawn from Economics Network (2008) Economics Network Students Survey 2008, available at http://www.economicsnetwork.ac.uk/projects/stud_survey2008_full.pdf
+ Quotations marked with + are drawn from Economics Network (2007) Economics Network Lecturer Survey 2007, available at http://www.economicsnetwork.ac.uk/projects/lec_survey2007.pdf
x Quotations marked with the symbol x are drawn from http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=motivation
In this section we share examples of cultural diversity we have experienced that can directly impact on the academic performance, the behaviour in lectures and the social interactions of international students. These examples support or complement the wealth of published material on this matter (see for example Ramburuth, 2001, who investigated the perceptions and practice regarding cross-cultural learning behaviour with implications for teaching, learning and diversity management in Economics; and Carroll, 2005).
In some cultural traditions, scholars are treated with great respect as societal role models. Students from such cultural traditions may address us with ceremony emphasising or exaggerating our academic title, and combining it with our first name. No matter how many times we invite the student to call us by our first name alone, they may never feel at ease to do so. Also, some students may seek our advice on personal issues of a serious nature, beyond the scope of normal pastoral care. In these situations it is best all round to refer the students to specialised support services within the institution as further discussed in the section 5.
Knowledge is, for many, considered as having an intrinsic value for humanity, with no ownership or attribution to its creators. The fundamental value of learning and of researching to become a better human being is in contrast with applied research and learning for a career and material gains:*
Referencing can be meaningless if we believe we should integrate learnt knowledge as our own. This is fundamental to understanding why so many students are considered to be colluding and plagiarising even after being explicitly told that this is unacceptable, and that they can face exclusion.
The purpose of referencing escapes many international students, and is not an immediately easy task as it implies being very attentive to detail. Exemplifying how to reference properly using our own work somehow humanises the experience. Asking the students to practise referencing under our guidance and giving students immediate feedback can be very helpful.
There are also implications for answering exam questions and writing essays. Many students will consider that basic questions that check factual knowledge cannot be just that. They take such questions as opportunities to show how much they know around the subject without ever stating the obvious because that is obvious and the lecturer or teacher already knows that. As a result, such students produce long answers that do not address what is asked, and that often have to be marked as wrong. Similarly writing essays can be a problem.* Some students will produce work that is three times as long; that does not address the immediate concerns of the essay but is instead speculative; where no distinction is provided between facts and opinions; that is poorly referenced, or not referenced at all. This tends to be an issue when students first start their degrees but can have a big impact on their motivation:*
Respect in some cultures also manifests itself by not looking straight at others, so that there is no eye contact. We could interpret the student as lacking in confidence, being extremely shy, not being interested or even being rude. This is relevant when students give presentations as they may receive lower marks.
Students who do not look at us directly when talking or listening, respond constructively when we explain sensitively how such behaviour can be interpreted. Students need to consider negotiating with themselves and changing a behaviour that may be core to their culture.
In some countries, arriving late, chatting with peers or answering the mobile phone in lectures or tutorials is not an issue. We have given lectures in some countries where students take notes whilst answering their mobile phones, or leave the lecture halfway through and come back later without any form of justification. When international students chat during lectures or tutorials, particularly in a language other than English, it can be distracting, irritating and interpreted as a lack of respect. However, students may be trying to support each other’s learning as expressed in the following quote from an Economics lecturer:
Interrupting or talking at the same time as other people can be considered normal and even desirable in some cultures, as it indicates people are paying attention and are interested. Yet, in the UK it may be interpreted as disruptive, aggressive or rude. We need to address these issues early on, by explaining to students clearly that such behaviour is distracting and considered disrespectful.
Some students will want to give us presents, as an expression of respect. It could be food and drinks, but it could also be expensive goods (or money and vouchers) and even forbidden imports such as stuffed crocodiles. Simply telling such students that we cannot accept presents does not solve the problem, as in a number of cultures it is polite to accept a present only after having refused to accept it a number of times. So students will insist that we accept, as it is part of a cultural ritual for them to insist and for us to refuse! Such students can seem to be intrusive and as trying to ingratiate themselves with us in some way.
One approach to deter students from giving us presents is to tell them that we cannot personally accept presents as such gifts become university property and have to be formally recorded (check your university policy on gifts).
Shaking hands energetically, patting each other on the back, gesticulating, talking loudly and standing very close to others may be the norm in some cultures but considered as overtly aggressive in the UK. Unless students are told about these interpretations explicitly, they will not necessarily notice that they are behaving differently to others.
Making quick decisions, taking initiative or volunteering information before developing a strong sense of belonging to a group is not expected in some cultures. However, in the UK reluctance to do the above could be interpreted as passive or non-assertive behaviour. This can lead to some students feeling they are not given the time to think and having to accept other people’s decisions, particularly in group work. Making these differences explicit to all may ease relationships between students.
Some students will be surprised that there may be fewer senior female academics in the UK than in their country of origin; others will consistently not acknowledge the presence and professional competence of female academics and will only accept male academics.
Some students feel uncomfortable in one-to-one or small group meetings where they are the only person of that gender. Leaving the door open of the office or room where the meeting is taking place, and offering the student a seat by the door can reassure them.
Some international students will think that English, Irish, Scottish and Welsh are the same; and many non-European international students may even assume that all European students (including UK students) are the same. Likewise some UK students may believe that all Africans, for example, are the same.This form of stereotyping can become the source of irritation to many students and staff alike.
English language is an important factor when international students choose to study in the UK. A good command of English is a highly valued skill for many professionals across the world, and achieving language fluency is a goal for international students. Although institutions set certain language standards as entry requirement, the monitoring of these standards tends to be subcontracted to language units within the institutions.
One issue faced by many international students is the sudden realisation when they arrive in the UK that despite their language qualifications they still find it difficult to understand what others say and others find it difficult to understand them. This is usually often unexpected and can be very disheartening. As a result many international students become very self-conscious which can lead them to avoid speaking with others and to isolation.
Often international students, particularly those new to the UK, are more fluent in written than in spoken English. They may not be prepared for specialised jargon, and initially being taught and tested in English can be unexpectedly difficult. A further issue is that students may feel inhibited to ask for clarification which can affect their performance.
Schmitt (2005) reports that the vocabulary considered sufficiently large for native English speakers is 40,000 words whilst for non-native English speakers entering university it is 10,000 words.. Schmitt et al. (2001) found the average vocabulary of university-aged English language students in several countries to be just under 4600 words. As would be expected with such a limited vocabulary, students' understanding and progress are likely to be affected. A study by Shanahan and Meyer (2003) found that first-year students of Economics for whom English was a second language, did significantly worse in end-of-semester examination results than students for whom English was a first language.
The following quotes reflect some difficulties initially faced by some international students studying Economics in the UK:*
A high proportion of international students of Economics in the UK report that their learning had been affected in some way due to language:*
International students who are native or near-native English speakers, and to some extent UK students whose first language is not English or who come from areas with strong regional accents, can also struggle. The practical suggestions on learning and teaching we share in this chapter may be useful for them as well.
Many international students initially rely on varied verbal and non-verbal cues to understand what is being said, including pace and emphasis, lip reading, facial expressions, hand movements, multisensory signals and contextual prompts. Strong regional accents, colloquialism, the use of unusual phrasal verbs, jargon, abbreviations, acronyms and references to culturally specific information can all obscure the message. Being aware of language and cultural references is very important, as commented by a UK Economics lecturer:
It is inevitable to encounter strong accents in an international environment whether individuals are native speakers or not. Both international and UK students consider language issues as barriers to learning:*
Whilst it may be expected that in international environments people may not immediately understand each other, and that this should not necessarily be a barrier to communication, a strong accent can make the content of a lecture or tutorial incomprehensible. From the students’ perspective, struggling to follow what we are saying because of our accent can be very frustrating and from their perspective, unacceptable. It is therefore crucial that the delivery of content does not rely exclusively on the spoken word.
Another problem is when students ask a question or offer an opinion but we cannot understand them due to their accent. Asking the students to repeat or rephrase may be embarrassing and counterproductive. Sometimes, it is tempting to pretend we have understood the contribution and try to move on. On a practical note, from our experience, the more we engage with different accents the more we are likely to come to understand them.
A constructive approach when we cannot understand students’ contributions due to strong accents is to ask the student to write the question/comment on a piece of paper for us to read, and then for us to write the question on the board for the benefit of all.
Colloquialism, idiomatic and unusual expressions, phrasal verbs, jargon, abbreviations and acronyms
Calling a spade a spade. We should avoid using colloquialisms, idiomatic or unusual expressions that take a long time to understand and learn. One of us recently heard a specialist referring to ‘looking at the accounts with a beady eye’ thought it was an acronym 'a BDI ', and asked what it was. So if we do use such expressions, we should explain what they mean and why we are using them.
Most international students will know common phrasal verbs including to stand up. Less common phrasal verbs can be very difficult to decode and even puzzling. For example, what does to stand down mean? Is it the opposite of to stand up? If so, how can we physically do it? To develop awareness of such unusual uses can take a long time! Can we use alternatives maybe closer to the Latin or Greek root? For example, instead of to stand down we might use resign. Linguistically related to phrasal verbs are also expressions that use the same particles as phrasal verbs but in a different order and which have very different meanings – these can be very confusing. Examples of this include to set off and offset; and set up and upset.
We should write down all specialised jargon, abbreviations (e.g.; i.e.) or acronyms (BDI!), and what they mean in legible print so that we can refer to this when we use them. It is most helpful if we can refer to a glossary that we have previously made available to students (as discussed in section 14). Also, if year after year, international students make a spelling mistake writing specialised jargon or expressions, we should refer to this, and maybe suggest a way of memorising the word/expression properly.
Examples are important to illustrate information and to help students pay attention to the lecture or tutorial. However, if examples are specific to cultural references they are meaningful only to some students and many international students may effectively be excluded. An illustration of this is when we asked non-European international students and staff about ‘Asterix and Obelix’ and very few recognise these characters. Further examples include cultural, social, political, religious or historical references based on the UK, USA and Europe; and TV and radio programmes, films, magazines, newspapers, cartoons and books. Many international students frequently prefer to watch and listen to programmes and to read sources from their countries of origin. So if we want to use local examples, we need to explain the context and why we are using them, and if applicable we could bring a copy to the lecture or tutorial to show.
In cases where our lectures focus on UK specific systems, say the UK tax system, some international students may feel that this is not relevant to them. We can explain that the underlying thinking and practicalities about systems in the UK are transferable to other systems, and that it is of value to analyse different models of organisation and to learn how to access the relevant information.
The motivation of international students can increase if we ask them to contribute with information relevant to their country. For example, we can ask students to verify the specific impact that a global trend has on a particular economic aspect of their country.
The Adventures of Asterix is a series of hardback French comic strips, first published in 1959, very popular with children and adults alike, in many European countries (http://www.asterix.com/)
Just before starting their studies, many international students are very excited and enthusiastic but once they start going from lecture to lecture struggling to understand, motivation can quickly drop. No one notices their presence anymore, as they are one of many and our lecture is also one of many. This can be very disheartening, confusing and tiring. It is therefore important that we are welcoming.
Sharing with all students when they start their course that we are privileged to be in an international learning environment can help international students feel valued and included, and all students appreciate each other more. We can highlight the opportunities to learn about different cultures, values and uses, and to experience how individuals perform academic tasks differently.
Showing students a map of the world signalling the countries represented at the university, or on the course, expresses visually the international community that we are part of and manifests our interest in it. The international services will be very happy to supply the information needed.
Having a good relationship with lecturers and teachers is one of the social aspects considered important by Economics students in the UK: *
If we participate in events that celebrate the international community within the department or at the university we have the opportunity to meet international students informally, which is valuable for the rapport mentioned by Jackson (2003). In Petropoulou’s (2001) words ‘taking an interest in the students can evoke commitment and inspiration making the course satisfying for both teacher and students’.
After the initial period of transition, most international students prosper without any major difficulties, but inevitably some will find it more difficult to settle in, and occasionally an international student may need more support than the pastoral care that we are able or competent to offer. If an international student is putting in effort yet getting poor results, it may be that there is an underlying difficulty and they may ask for advice.
We also need to be aware that some international students may be on the receiving end of unfavourable attention within or outside the university, due to stereotyping or political conflicts.
We may need to advise international students to consult support services. It is important to know what services students are entitled to and which they may have to pay for; where the services are located; and if some students may be reluctant to use these services for cultural reasons.
Confidential support from counselling, money advisors and the international student office, plus specific support for learning, accommodation, religious and spiritual issues, and security are amongst the provisions available in many institutions. The student union usually facilitates a number of support groups and international societies. The security services are normally very well equipped to support students in difficulty and are generally contactable at all times day or night.
Many international students adapt to the academic culture in the UK without much specific support but others will not understand what is required (Carroll, 2005: 27). Quotes from Economics students in the UK reflect this:*
To provide equivalent opportunities for international students who may hold very different expectations regarding learning and teaching, we need to be explicit about the what, the why and the how.
The above list is not meant to be exhaustive but a reminder that it is not sufficient to include such information in introductory brochures, lecture and course handouts, or VLEs. Students are unlikely to engage and invest emotionally, socially and intellectually in different activities if they do not understand what, how and why, and if information is not presented in a personable manner.
Being explicit gives international students better chances to engage with our suggestions. It also means that as lecturers or teachers we need to keep reflecting on our practice to respond to international students’ needs. We should explain to the students that:
If we want to motivate the learning of international students we need to be realistic. This starts by questioning the frequently quoted figures of 15–20 minutes for students’ attention spans. From our experience, the attention spans of students are at best 7–10 minutes, and when planning learning and teaching we need to reflect on this to motivate international students. Initially, paying attention and remaining motivated through a lecture or tutorial can be a struggle for many international students. We can tell students that we empathise with them.
We also need to be realistic in terms of the time we have to prepare and the time each element of a lecture and tutorial takes. We often anticipate that we can prepare faster, and that we can cover more than what is realistically possible. The result is that we rush the content and feel frustrated.
We plan learning sessions using a table that helps us organise the linked elements in a lecture or tutorial; learning outcomes (what we expect students to start developing an understanding of) => content (what we are going to present to address the learning outcomes) => methods (how we are going to present to address the learning outcomes: are we going to talk? to ask a question? to present a problem? to propose an activity? to show a resource?) => multisensory resources (how are we going to illustrate this aspect? using a newspaper/ a photo/ a film, etc.) => assessment (what and how are we going to assess?) => very importantly, time! (how long will this content take us to present?).
The session plan helps us decide when to introduce short activities that are not meant as distractions but as opportunities for all students to interact, learn and focus on the lecture.
This is the format that we use (rows can be added as needed):
Audiovisual/ multisensory resources
So, for example, the first rows of a lecture starting at 9:00 can look like this:
Audiovisual/ multisensory resources
Support recall of context
Summary in slide shows
Students to share poster contents
Such a format also allows us space to write notes or reflections on how we feel the lecture was received with particular emphasis on the participation of international students. We discuss reflecting in our practice in section 17.
Printing the session plan in coloured paper makes it easy to find amongst other printed materials during the lecture or tutorial and we can write notes about students’ interaction and quickly assess how we are doing in terms of time. If the resources are unavailable, we can still give the session with reference to the plan.
Being realistic about time in our session plan saves us from rushing to finish. In a 50-minute lecture, after the time to organise the materials and equipment at the beginning, the time to run the activities, and the time at the end of the session to clarify any points, leaves 35 minutes to present content.
If we design a session that receives particularly affirmative feedback from international students, we could offer to share it with other lecturers and teachers via the Economics Network.
Multisensory communication using audiovisuals and media resources
As suggested before, international students in particular may find it hard to pay attention to lectures and tutorials if we rely exclusively on written and spoken words. Multisensory variety can support students focus and follow the content of complex subjects (see for example Fullekrug et al., 2007). We can use a combination of traditional and non-traditional audiovisual and media including boards, flipchart, visualiser, OHP, slides, slideshows, photos, video clips (and increasingly video streaming), three-dimensional objects, web resources, interactive websites, and voice recordings from radio interviews. Being restricted to one resource only (e.g. slideshows), particularly in low lighting conditions can make it very hard to pay attention (see Cham, 1999 for a humorous illustration of this).
Colander (2004) discusses the need to balance the content and form of a presentation, and highlights the importance of being an expert who cares for the subject to convey its importance to students. Showing enthusiasm for one’s subject is very important to motivate students to learn, particularly in an international student context.
Enriching the main messages of lectures and tutorials with multisensory resources that stimulate various senses helps students pay attention, and recall the information when revising. Enriching the content does not have to be complex or reliant on sophisticated equipment.
For example, when explaining ranking bundles of goods from most to least desirable, in addition to the mathematical notation, say U(A) > U(B), we can use symbols to indicate the most preferred and the least preferred (we can insert symbols in slideshows; or we can draw them on the board). Use examples that we can be sure all students know about (say a bicycle and a car, rather than, say, a cricket ball and a rugby ball, which many students may never have heard of). We can enrich our words by showing a cartoon or a photograph (free from web sources or we can use our own), or three-dimensional models (miniature of a car or bicycle). The point is that only speaking the example does not have the impact of showing the example.
If there are current issues relating to our lecture, we can bring newspapers and refer to them, or use a visualiser to show the newspaper in some detail.
When we are choosing resources, we need to check the quality of the sound and image as background noise, image distortions and strong accents can be barriers for international students to understand the message. Can we choose films that have the possibility of subtitles? Lengthy clips, radio or films may actually demotivate rather than motivate international students.
We have to account for the time it takes to show and/or the time to set up the resources. It can take a minute to set up (if the video is internet based in which case we need internet access) or 2 minutes if it is VHS or DVD. These times are approximate, but we refer to them to make the point that we have to be realistic and account for them in our session plan.
If we cannot access the resources, it is best not to show great disappointment or complain about technology! We can reiterate what the resource is about, why it is so interesting, and suggest students access it in their own time, inviting them to share their thoughts by email, VLE or in the following session.
Resources are likely to be influenced by the cultural traditions of their authors, and may be interpreted differently from what we anticipate: some international students may have culturally-related reservations regarding our choice or miss the point completely. We can let the students know that we welcome their views and are prepared to consider alternative resources.
Sources of topical media include radio, TV and internet news magazine programmes. Mainstream UK news is likely to be influenced by UK perspectives. That is not a problem per se, but it is important to be aware of it. As suggested by Sloman and Mitchell (2002) if our institution has a ERA (Educational Recording Agency) Licence we can record and copy programmes and assemble extracts for free.
We should not exclude from our lectures talking without using any supporting resources, particularly later in the course when most students are likely to understand our ways of expression. Using our pace, our voice and our body language to support our words can be very effective to motivate international students.
Preparing a course can be time consuming, so we need to be strategic and check what is available. Whilst many materials are not produced having the needs of international students in mind, we can easily adapt them. The Economics Network online learning and teaching materials site is a great resource base that provides reference lists, links to sites of interest, lecture slides, worked examples, multiple choice questions and answers, examples and activities for seminars.
Can we make a slideshow more clear in any way? Can we rewrite the learning outcomes in terms of direct questions that will be addressed during the lecture? Is there a clear summary? Can we choose slides from different presentations and can we make changes so that they become more visually interesting? Can we introduce current international issues? Can the language used be simplified?
Do not be apologetic about adapting materials, but acknowledge the sources and recognise the privilege of having access to such a wealth of resources.
A number of subjects in Economics depend on interconnected levels of increasing complexity, and to miss one step can result in not understanding a whole theory or model. Using appropriate pace and emphasis is very important, particularly as explanations of proofs, diagrams, graphs, tables and charts may otherwise become incomprehensible.
When we are familiar with a topic, we tend to speak faster, and international students in particular may struggle to follow. So it is important that we consider our pace and ensure that we do not go too fast. If we emphasise the most important points we allow international students to take notes and give them the chance to focus. Emphasising can be done by slowing down or pausing; by repeating or rephrasing what we said before; by changing the tone of our voice; and by signalling ‘what I am going to say next is very important/ relevant/ interesting’; by writing on the board (e.g. if we refer to authors and their work during a lecture or tutorial, it is advisable that we write the references down so that international students can take note, otherwise they may simply miss the references altogether); or by using circles or arrows.
Emphasis is also achieved with non-verbal cues. These cues are highly culture-dependent, but international students take cues from lip reading, and from our facial and body expressions to understand the message. So we should face the students when we are talking and avoid covering our mouths. Standing with our back to the light, low lighting; background noise, ‘chalk and talk’ or ‘talk and walk’ can impact on students’ ability to see and hear us, and our voice projection can be compromised. These barriers to following the message are worse for international students. We like to say that ‘chalk and talk’ should not be ‘talk to the chalk’!
If we are lively, use a good pace, face the students and use emphasis it is more likely that international students will feel motivated regarding our subject!
Proofs can be extremely hard to follow for international students. Students may not be familiar or not recognise the pronunciation of expressions and jargon particularly when the rationale seems counter-intuitive; and it is enough to mishear or miss a few words for the rationale to be lost, or totally misinterpreted. Struggling to read, copy, understand and write what is being said can be exhausting and result in international students being unable to follow. Particularly if this happens from the beginning of the explanation it can be very frustrating, and de-motivating.
Most proofs are the result of elaborate processes that involve trial and error and time to mature possibilities until an elegant, useful result is achieved. Yet, they are frequently presented as if they were self-evident. Instead of saying ‘this is easy; trivial; basic, as we know;’, it is far more constructive to recognise that the proof is complex and that it requires dedication to become familiar with it. To expect that the students understand immediately the elaborations of proofs and are thus able to ask informed questions is not realistic.
Tell students that we do not simply memorise proofs. In reality we need to understand the basic premises of the proof and revise them. This can help students be realistic about the effort, thinking and time to reflect required to learn proofs.
Most importantly, students have to understand that proofs are not there simply to make their lives difficult. We should clarify this each time we are presenting a proof.
If the students should have covered the basic principles elsewhere we should guide them to where the basic principles were discussed previously ‘these concepts were addressed in lecture/seminar X and you may want to revisit your notes’, preferably in good time before the lecture or tutorial.
If we plan to talk for the following 15 minutes, we should inform the students and acknowledge that some might struggle to follow everything. We can tell them that after that period, we will be doing a pause so that they can discuss their notes with their neighbours and we’ll be asking some groups to share in plenary what they remember. This can motivate students to pay attention as they are given a challenge and the promise of interaction!
We can use slideshows very successfully to support explaining proofs, and there are many lectures available on the web and provided by publishing houses that we can adapt. The danger is that showing a series of equations appearing simultaneously with text can result in information overload; and make us go faster inadvertently. International students will struggle to follow.
Another aspect to be aware of is that at times lecturers or teachers write diagrams and maths on the whiteboard, but only vocalise, without ever writing down, related fundamental intuitive arguments. International students may benefit greatly if we left space on the whiteboard to write down, even if only in note form, these arguments (Long and Barnett, 2008).
Pacing explanations and giving time for the students to take notes including a few moments of silence, when moving from one step to another, can signal that something different is to come. It can also give a moment of rest to all.
Clear signposts can be invaluable as the students are not simply presented with a lengthy proof that seems to go on and on with no direction.
So when we teach the proof we can:
In our experience, this approach is equally beneficial when explaining models, theories and sets of instructions.
Using mixed visual inputs instead of relying on one single input alone to signal different stages of a proof adds variety to the explanation and helps tired students refocus. Slide shows, laminated A4 posters, flipcharts, and the boards can all be used to mark different points of a proof.
For example, we can print in landscape the initial and final equations on coloured A4 paper in a clear large font and use it as a poster (which we can laminate to reuse), and keep it on show until the end of the proof. Alternatively, we can use a visualiser.
Diagrams, graphs, charts and tables are indispensable in Economics. A common assumption is that because they are visual, they are easy to understand. In our experience this is not at all the case as typically there is a lot more information than is needed to make our point. Instead of illustrating the message in an attractive way, students can become distracted by subsidiary information and this leads to confusion rather than clarification.
Even simple instructions can be difficult for international students to follow in the context of a lecture but frequently they feel embarrassed to ask us to repeat them. For example, instructions like ‘if we now look at the top left hand corner of the graph’ or even ‘when x equals 10 and y equals 30 we can see’. International students may still be trying to write what we said before, so they may not even be aware of what we are expecting them to look at. Can we stop for a few seconds to indicate we need their attention? International students will also need more time or non-verbal reinforcement to reason ‘top’ followed by ‘left hand’ or ‘x=10’ and ‘y=30’ and to look in that direction.
Supporting the verbal message with extra signs of what we are referring to in diagrams, graphs, charts and tables can be very helpful. Signs include gestures or movement (pointing in the general direction alone can be too vague); or visual indicators (different colour; a shape like an arrow or circle).
With slideshows, we can point an arrow, or circle the area of interest. Also, when explaining diagrams, graphs, tables and charts we have to ensure that we look at the students, as discussed in section 3.
It is important to be very clear about what we want the students to learn. What visual cues can we add to make absolutely clear what is relevant (e.g. using an arrow or circle)? Can we simplify the diagrams, graphs, charts and tables? Are font size and type clear? Can we refer to the trends in a graph in terms of shape or can we use lines with shapes/dots, etc.? What about the language used? Is it accessible and can they refer to a glossary?
The complexity of language (verbs, nouns, adjectives), and nuances used when describing trends, degree and rates of change, movements on a graph (upward, downward or horizontal) can be a deterrent for international students to remain motivated. For example, a decrease can be referred to as a decline, drop, fall or slide.
International students have to learn to present and describe information using various words and expressions. However, initially, we can limit the range of words and expressions used, and we can provide a list for students to refer to in the lecture.
We can plan time in our lecture so that students work in mixed groups on proofs, diagrams, graphs, tables and charts with their neighbours as explained in section 12.
A key issue surrounding international students is integration with UK students. Even though many international and UK students would like to interact more, they often misinterpret each others intentions. For example a study found that Australian students often think that international students prefer not to mix with them, and vice versa (Volet and Ang, 1998).
In Economics in particular, poor integration is a missed opportunity for very interesting discussions as international students represent a variety of economic regimes from all over the world. Students from diverse academic traditions also have complementary skills that can be used as a resource for learning. An example is that some international students have higher levels of mathematical ability but struggle with economic intuition and interpretation of results compared with UK students. Interaction that specifically acknowledges these complementary skills can be valuable as international students can check the mathematics of UK students and UK students can check the intuition and explanations of the international students (Long and Barnett, 2008).
Below we discuss how to achieve integration through interaction. We analyse the space provided by the lecture theatre to interact; we give step-by step guidance on how to promote and monitor interaction in the lecture or tutorial; we discuss issues relevant to games and case studies; we discuss group work outside the lecture or tutorial; and we share views on e-interaction.
There may be students who do not like to engage in activities. As long as we provide alternatives for these students to learn (e.g. watching the behaviour of others; trying to look into emerging patterns on their own) we are not excluding them from learning.
In our experience, the lecture space is fundamental to initiating interaction between all students under our guidance. Sharda (1995) highlights the importance of the cultural awareness and sensitivity of staff in supporting the workings of culturally diverse groups, and that group work in class provides opportunities for staff to monitor groups’ social dynamics.
The size and seating arrangements in lecture theatres often make them appear unwelcoming spaces, and students tend to sit next to their friends. So a common justification against embedding interaction in lectures is that it can only be done in small groups, and in rooms where students can walk around.
Some lecturers and teachers may be reluctant to encourage students to interact, as they are concerned that it does not result in real learning. Marburger (2005) investigated the impact of replacing the traditional lecture format with co-operative learning (where students work on exercises in small groups) in principles of microeconomics classes. He observed that students’ application of theory and level of economic reasoning was higher in students who participated in co-operative learning as compared with students who attended traditional lectures. Whilst there is no mention of the cultural background of the students involved in his study, these findings support our observations of improved learning and integration of international and UK students through interacting in lectures regardless of audience numbers and room type. Sloman (2002) also describes running workshops very successfully in lecture theatres.
Activities for interaction include those proposed by Sloman and Mitchell (2002) such as anticipating outcomes to scenarios presented; comparing notes; sharing doubts; filling in gaps in handouts; answering questions; sharing thoughts relating to a quote; anticipating trends in curves; and predicting behaviours.
In our experience, groups of three make good groups as everyone has a chance to contribute fairly, in a short time. Bigger groups may defeat the purpose.
When planning these activities for the lecture, we allocate 1 minute per student per group, plus 1 minute to write down keywords, plus 1 minute per group to share in plenary. In a variation of this format, we give 1 minute for students to reflect on the question on their own and to write down keywords, and then another 2 minutes for students to share in small groups. Instead of asking groups to share in plenary, we can show the students the answers to the activities proposed and give them another 3 minutes to compare in their groups with what they had achieved.
We specifically ask students to form groups of three with others they have not worked with before. We say and write something along the lines of ‘Please find two people sitting within your reach that you have not worked with before.’ In the following schematics we suggest ways to form groups of three. Students sitting in adjacent rows across a corridor can easily stand up and change places. This gives enough variety to group membership.
Figure 1 Schematic of sitting arrangements in an amphitheatre type room where the rectangles represent rows, and same-fill adjacent circles represent students working in the same group.
If students are reluctant to interact they may need some encouragement or clarification. Having written instructions and aims, and reaffirming the benefits of interaction, is usually sufficient for students to engage. We should give the choice to students who prefer to work on their own to do so.
International and UK students generally enjoy working this way and are constructive about overcoming difficulties in communication to complete the activities successfully.
Frequently, students start by introducing themselves and where they come from, which is a great step for integration.
Our observations over the years lead us to conclude that there are a number of valuable outcomes of proposing such activities, for motivating integration of international students:
As students come to expect working in mixed groups in lectures they no longer sit next to their friends and clusters of same-cultural background students (e.g. UK only; Greek only; Chinese only) tend to disperse. Apart from integration in the lecture, interaction may also nurture informal peer support networks.
Interaction in the lecture motivates international students and further energises all the class. We find that it no longer takes most of the semester or academic year for international students to develop enough trust in us and in the rest of the group to be willing to contribute.
Using games and case studies in lectures or seminars can help make Economics lectures and tutorials more meaningful and help to motivate students (see for example Sloman and Mitchell, 2002; and Volpe, 2002). When asked about aspects of their Economics degree that could be improved* students refer to more interactive elements, such as games, experiments and role-play.
There are three issues we feel important to address when considering such approaches in an international environment.
Enriching the instructions of games and case studies with multisensory resources can help international students better understand and recall information.
For example, a game with very simple instructions such as ‘Setting up a pit market’, used to introduce the supply and demand model, can be initially very confusing for international students. So how can multisensory resources be of help? Do all international students know what a pit market is? Why not show a photograph? When the roles of buyers and sellers are allocated, can we enrich the verbal instructions with visual or auditory cues? Small changes can make it easier to memorise the roles so we could allocate the buyers (and highlight the b for buyers) with the black cards (and highlight the b in black) to make it easier to remember. Also can we complement this with showing and keeping visible the colour of the cards? Can we use a simple cartoon to explain the instructions?
Group work can be invaluable for students to acquire and develop values and skills. Equally, it can be very frustrating and discourage students from interacting. If this is the case when all group members have attended the same or comparable educational system, having a mixed international and UK membership can bring far more complexity to group work. Different (and divergent) unspoken culturally-influenced values, expectations and prior skills become more salient when trying to comply with deadlines. Our observations indicate that students who experience culturally mixed groups regard anticipated difficulties as manageable supporting the findings of Volet and Ang (1998) and those of De Vita (2005: 77). We too find it important to share these affirmative outcomes of culturally diverse group work with all students to remove unhelpful preconceptions. Carroll (2005) also addresses some interesting issues related to group work.
Before suggesting international students work in groups, it is important to consider the following issues carefully.
1. Suggesting group work at the beginning of the course is not wise as some international students will still be struggling with language, learning how systems work, and trying to access information including the library, internet and intranet, and VLEs. They may therefore be unable fully and equally to participate in group work.
2. International and UK students interact better in groups if they have already had plenty of opportunities to work together during lectures and tutorials as suggested before. Still we have to be aware that unless we do the group allocation, UK and international students might not mix.
In group allocation we need to be sensitive as international conflicts can make some students reluctant to work with others. We must make it clear to all students that if there is a reason why they would like a different group allocation, they can contact us in confidence.
3. Whilst in some countries, students have more exposure of assessed group work than in the UK, in other countries group work may be considered as not real learning. So whilst some international students will have very professional, proactive and constructive approaches to group work others will be uninterested and disengaged.
4. To assess the process undergone we can ask all students to submit reflective journals. Self-regulation and keeping records of emails exchanged, when meetings took place, what was discussed and decided and who attended can be very useful for us to balance who did what and when. Our experience is that many international students do not understand the relevance of reflective journals. Can we provide them with examples and can we make it explicit that these are part of the assessment?
5. We need to clarify what we expect to get from group work; what the roles are within the group; how we expect the group to self-regulate and that all contribute fairly; the typical barriers to group work and how they might be overcome; and what students can gain and what the challenges might be.
For example, in many cases, working in groups with international and UK membership can be slow, with the potential for misunderstandings. Some international students feel that they are not given the opportunities to express themselves, are being misunderstood intentionally, and are being rushed to make decisions. Some UK students may feel that the progress is insufficient and they are effectively wasting time, not learning as much, and that they will be marked down. Some other international students with more experience of group work may feel that UK students do not make enough effort.
Make explicit to all students the values and skills they can gain from group work and the added value of an international membership. Also be clear about the difficulties that groups with a culturally-diverse membership can pose and how the difficulties may be manifested in practice.
Shanahan and Meyer (2003) observed that awarding bonus points for completion of a non-traditional curricular task related to learning issues resulted in increased student responses, and supported students’ perceptions of the legitimacy of the task as integral, rather than external, to the course. An equivalent approach can be incorporated regarding knowledge and understanding of different cultures as an item that contributes to the final assessment of group work. We first need to ensure how specific we expect students to be in return about what they have learnt from each culture presented in the group.
Some international students may not have encountered this type of academic situation, and some may be too uncomfortable with their way of expression in English, as expressed by an Economics student:*
Asking international students to give presentations can result in unnecessary tension. Adjustments may help the student feel more comfortable with the situation. For example, would the student prefer giving the presentation in a smaller room, to a smaller audience? Or maybe to read from a script while sitting down?
An issue to consider is whether allowances should be made for oral fluency of international students when giving presentations. McMahon (2007) argues that since students will be assumed to have a very good command of English on finishing their degree in the UK, they should be judged in the same way as UK students. However, international students may sometimes feel it unfair to be penalised due to their use of language. We would suggest that if such a criterion is to be adopted, international students should be given plenty of support on their presentation skills, and staff assessing the presentation should give specific feedback on what and how exactly the use of language can be improved, so that international students can work towards specific goals.
All students preparing to give presentations have to be aware of the diversity of audience needs including those of (other) international students. We can specify what we do in our practice to support the learning of international students, including making available materials beforehand; writing down questions; making references available; and responding to questions and comments in an affirmative manner. We can formalise criteria relating to clarity of the presentation to international audiences in the evaluation sheet.
Avoid asking international students to read aloud in lectures or tutorials as this can cause embarrassment for those who are self-conscious about their pronunciation, particularly at the beginning of their course.
Virtual learning environments (VLEs) and Web 2.0 social networking platforms tools can allow us to communicate with students in a way that is a very effective use of our time. In addition, outside the academic context, and irrespective of language and cultural differences, many students are increasingly using social networking sites to share interests. If we use these means to enrich our teaching we may facilitate students’ engaging with the subject.
Web 2.0 networking can be used to great effect to promote learning of academic content and interaction of international and UK students in and outside the class. A colleague (Abdullah, 2008) observes that attention, interest and participation levels among all students increases visibly as an immediate result of the introduction of such platforms in class. Students are also more enthusiastic and interactive when tasks relying on Web 2.0 tools are suggested at the end of the session. Communicating academic content using spaces students use to socialise seems to make the students perceive the subject and the lecturer or teacher as familiar and motivating.
However, we would like to caution that some colleagues feel that they effectively spend more time moderating students’ contributions. Good training on the advantages and disadvantages and time management skills required when using Web platforms is recommended before we consider proposing their use as learning tools.
One of the most recurrent comments about international students is that they do not contribute in lectures or tutorials. The classic ‘Are there any questions?’ followed by an uncomfortable silence, is often used to justify moving on quickly. But, do we find it easy to interrupt the Dean or Vice Chancellor with a question or comment without feeling that it may seem obvious or irrelevant to the rest of the audience? International students have the added tension of simultaneously internally debating how to articulate the question or comment in ‘good English’. In our view, questions should be used as offering opportunities to learn. However, they can sometimes be felt as threats.
If we want international students to contribute to a discussion we have to anticipate that initially they may struggle to find the right words or expressions, and may need more time than UK students. In addition, international students are more likely to contribute with questions and opinions when they feel safe that they will not be ridiculed for their English.
An approach we have adopted in our practice that motivates international students to answer questions is as follows:
1. We avoid asking questions directly of individual students, whether international or UK.
2. We are also particularly aware of the difficulties in presenting international students with a text that they have not had an opportunity to prepare, and asking them to respond to questions. If we want to consider written material not made available beforehand, we must give enough time for international students to read it. A good approach is that we read the material twice over in silence, and that usually corresponds to the time many international students take to read once.
3.We always write the question down with clearly legible handwriting (or have it already written in slide shows, OHTs, etc.) and keep it visible so that international students can refer back to it without having to ask us to repeat. This has two practical advantages as we avoid the following:
a) when we repeat the question, we are likely to rephrase it and generate added questions or slight variations from the original one, which can confuse international students;
b) international students may not realise at first that we are asking a question (particularly if we do not use emphasis), and may worry that we think they are not paying attention.
3. We give students 3 minutes to discuss in groups of three what the answer/answers might be.
4. We reassure the students that:
5. We suggest that one of the students writes down the answers produced by the group on a separate A4 piece of paper, clarifying that we are interested in the combined contribution and not on who contributed with what.
6. Once the groups have been talking for 3 minutes we remind them that they should start writing notes on what they want to share, and we give them an extra minute to do so. In our experience this refocuses the students on the task and supports them in being succinct.
7. To get the attention of very animated students we clap three or four times.
8. Because of time constraints, we do not ask all the groups to share their contributions in the lecture. We randomly select two or three groups to read out their findings with one of the group members reading the group notes.
9. We ask all groups to share their contributions on a VLE or by email.
10. We remind them that whilst the posting will be done by one of the group members, it is important that the comments are anonymous, i.e. we do not identify which group member contributed with what.
11. Being realistic: even if only two groups share their contributions in the lecture, we need to allocate 4 minutes for group work and 3 minutes for sharing.
In our experience if a group interpreted the question differently from what we had originally expected, they typically apologise for interpreting the ‘wrong way’. We reassure them that their contribution is still welcome. This is a good opportunity to clarify how to interpret types of question and is valuable preparation for exams and essays. We should take note in the session plan of the different interpretations of a question as this can inform us when writing exam questions, and reflect on how to make the question clearer. If several groups interpret our question in ways we had not expected, it is a strong indication that the question needs to be rephrased.
International students are more likely to contribute and to take risks if there is a shared responsibility for the contributions and they are not the sole focus of attention. Even students with strong accents do not generally have problems in contributing when they are talking with their neighbours.
This approach has enabled us to probe and learn misconceptions students have regarding the topics taught; to reflect on the areas of our lecturing we need to clarify further; and to help international students feel that they can contribute to everyone’s learning regardless of their perceived communication difficulties.
In seminars and tutorials, where more time can be allocated for each question and student cohorts are smaller, we can invite all groups to share the answers obtained.
In tutorials, groups can show their responses using a visualiser or putting up their contributions on the wall so that all students can go round the room and read them. We need to allocate 10 minutes for this, but we can be sure that all feel focused and energised.
Advantages of this approach include that:
When it comes to responding to questions or comments from international students we have adopted the following approach.
If we understood the question being asked, we start by repeating the question or comment (or rephrasing it, particularly if it needs to be simplified) to check that our understanding represents the student’s meanings. We write down the question/comment or its keywords on the board. Very importantly, this gives the opportunity for all students to read the contribution, and be prepared to engage with the answer.
We thank the student for their contribution. We may say ‘thank you’, ‘that is a relevant point’ or ‘that’s an interesting question’. What we are signalling to all the students is that we welcome their willingness to contribute, and that the whole group can benefit. Even if it is a request to repeat what we have just said, we thank the student as we can anticipate that several international students may also have missed that particular point.
Aim to keep answers short and simple, and avoid going into lengthy answers or too much detail as international students may be unable to follow. Writing keywords and drawing visual elements such as a diagram or flow chart on the board can be of help.
When we finish, we can check that our response has addressed the question and open the possibility for the students to contact us if issues remain. For example, we may say ‘Does this answer your question?’, ‘I hope this answers your question’, ‘Any issues remaining please come and see me afterwards’, ‘We can discuss this further at the tutorial/seminar’. We can invite the students to post queries on the VLE or by email, e.g. ‘Please email me to remind me of this conversation’.
What if we perceive a question or a comment as provocative? This is where we need to be very aware of the cultural differences that we have mentioned in section 2. Cultural differences influence the responses we expect from International students, and our interpretations of unexpected responses. Students may sound inappropriately aggressive, apologetic or disengaged/uninterested and be genuinely unaware of being perceived that way.
When there are misunderstandings or misperceptions that are uncomfortable or potentially threatening for those involved, it is best to try to safeguard everyone’s values and worth. For example, if we feel that an international student is undermining what we are saying, we can anticipate that there might be a misunderstanding and we can ask the student to specify what the misunderstanding is. If the student is not co-operative, we can diffuse the situation by suggesting that the discussion is continued at a later date, e.g. on the VLE. Unless there is a way of communicating sensitively to the student how that behaviour may be interpreted, the student will not know, and may never develop the appropriate behaviour. In our experience, we have never had to take more severe action such as asking the student to leave the room or having to call the security, and hope that we will never be faced with such uncomfortable situations!
International students may be particularly concerned that their sentences are confusing and about forgetting what they want to say. In our experience, giving opportunities for them to work in small groups in the lecture or tutorial results in more questions from them.
International students should write down their contributions (questions, comments) and can read from the script. Students tend to be more focused and clear using this method than when trying to contribute from memory alone. This also makes it possible for us to see the script if we cannot understand the student’s accent.
Once the question or comment is clear to us, we can summarise it for the benefit of all present and, if relevant, can write it down on the board.
The focus is always on enabling communication and not making the students feel inadequate for their accent or their different sentence constructions
Unless international students can prepare for lectures and tutorials in good time, they may struggle and be unable to contribute. In this section we explain particular issues faced by international students, the types of materials we can make available and access to such materials.
For international students reading and processing information can initially take a long time. Becoming acquainted with the language and ways of representing data, checking unclear cultural references, and translating words and expressions may all be part of the process. We should therefore make the resources available to the students in good time, so they can prepare at their own pace and with access to dictionaries or online resources.
If we make any changes to any information international students have received or have already available, including criteria of assessment, submission deadlines, meetings, teaching times and venues, we need to inform the students orally and in writing so that they have more chances of getting the information. Waiting until the end of a lecture or tutorial to make these announcements is not a good approach. Many students will already be getting ready to go, which increases the background noise, and international students in particular are more likely to be tired and to misunderstand or not hear.
Materials we can make available include lecture and tutorial notes and handouts; slideshows; glossaries and vocabulary lists; list of abbreviations, acronyms, jargon and new words; reading lists; previous exam papers; copies of marked essays; and reflective journals. Such materials can be made available on the intranet and library, as e-booklets or paper copies, and should be available well in advance of being needed (at beginning of the year or start of each term or semester). We can also ask students to research and/or read new material, revise previously covered material, or answer questions that we may post in advance of lectures or tutorials.
Petropoulou (2001) shares the issues faced by international exchange students that join courses at third year level, and who do not share the background knowledge needed to solve some problems. She has supported such students by meeting them outside class and by assigning extra reading in advance to prepare them for material to come.
When designing written materials we should reflect on the following:
To save paper, we may be tempted to fit two pages in an A4 copy but the material becomes very hard and unattractive to read. If we provide photocopies in the library, we should choose copies that are not twisted, blurred, illegible or dirty, as all these aspects greatly affect legibility and are unappealing.
Some international students will have excellent IT skills, but others may be unable to access written materials that are exclusively reliant on IT literacy, particularly at the beginning of their course. For example, do all students understand the library systems? Do they know how to access virtual libraries and data catalogues? Can they access the VLE? Are they happy with email? If not, can we guide the international students to courses available at the university to support their learning? Otherwise, can we make a number of paper copies available at the library? Can we suggest those students who may have the skills needed to teach those who have not?
Whilst access to written materials may be difficult for some new international students, they should not be excluded from learning that depends on having read materials beforehand. We can give them the chance to learn from other students in the lecture or tutorial.
We can give students the chance to learn from others in the lecture or tutorial any relevant information they could not access as follows:
This allows all students to have a general understanding of the issues we wanted addressed before the lecture or tutorial. Engaging students in the learning of others creates good opportunities for international and UK students to interact constructively, and to engage with each other’s interpretations. Rather than doing progressively less preparation for the lectures or tutorials, and relying on someone else to have done it, our observations are that more students come prepared as they enjoy the social interaction and sharing of their learning
‘When faced with a long reading list comprising of several chapters from books and a number of articles, students have difficulty prioritizing their reading and knowing which areas are beyond the scope of the course.’ Petropoulou (2001).
This is particularly the case for international students who may think that they have to read everything in case they miss relevant information. The result can be overwhelming. So it is helpful that we consider the following.
Not only can international students practise their computer literacy skills they can also start to develop a critical faculty regarding the reliability of sources, and, very importantly, appreciate the relevance of the subject to the real world. This can be very useful for motivating them.
In relation to assessment we would like to focus on multiple choice questions. Other aspects of assessment of international students have be explored in a number of recent publications (e.g. Ryan, 2005; and Brown and Joughin 2007).
Multiple choice questions present particular barriers to international students: the right answer should be unambiguously right; all the other answers should be plausible but wrong. The issue for international students is that because of language, the level of certainty can become lower or, equally, the level of ambiguity can become higher.
It is also difficult for new international students to interpret questions and to relate the theory with the questions asked, and to relate doubts and questions to those already addressed in frequently asked questions. So they need to be given opportunities to learn and practise the language in this particular context. Can we provide lists of typical language used in questions? Can past exam papers be provided at the beginning of the year and be worked on in tutorials?
The aim of feedback is to support learning in relation to stated outcomes. In other words, it should provide a link between the student’s present performance and future targets:
Feedback (or lack of it) affects all students of Economics. In the case of international students, there are particular barriers as they may not be familiar with classifications, assessment rubrics or indeed the difference between writing conventions for essays, reports, or reflective journals. This is expressed by an Economics student:*
It is worth remembering the need to be explicit referred to in section 6: the ‘what’ the ‘how’ and the ‘why’. We should be explicit well in time before any students engage with work that will be assessed so that they have the chance to understand how learning outcomes relate to assessment. No feedback or poor feedback results in depriving students of information they need to develop.
Some Economics students feel they are left ignorant of their progress due to lack of continuous assessment and that there is too much dependence on the final exam. Comments include:*
Realistically, assessing students’ work is very time consuming and possibly one of the most unrewarding tasks we have to engage with, as it frequently relies on us having to work long hours, in our own time. Assessing the work of international students can be more complex, and more time-consuming as we need to be sensitive to their use of the language. Frequently, the cumulative spelling difficulties, unusual use of words, and uncommon sentence structure can make it very hard for us to feel constructive and to interpret appreciatively the meanings behind what is stated, and to mark the work fairly.
To return assessed work in a timely manner puts a lot of pressure on us. But unless we do so, the assessment is unlikely to be of much use as it can require a lot of effort to refocus on the work many weeks after it was submitted. Hence the large piles of uncollected essays when students have already moved onto something else! To empathise with this, think of the effort it may require for us to try to engage constructively with reviewers’ comments regarding a paper we have submitted for publication three months earlier! It really can be hard work as we have moved on! The same happens to students:*
To give one-to-one feedback to all international students is unrealistic as there is not enough time when student cohorts are large. But we can understand students’ frustrations expressed below.* Let us just imagine that instead of detailed feedback from reviewers on a paper we submitted for publication, we have general areas of improvement for the errors we have made!
Hyatt (2005) discusses types of feedback, and the importance of giving encouragement and appreciation to students with the purpose of establishing and maintaining good academic and social relationships.
One way of humanising formative comments is by adopting the following structure:
In our experience, following such a structure makes the task of marking large numbers of essays and exams more personable and focused, coherent and fair for everyone involved, as all students get the same amount and type of comments, and we work more efficiently.
The following suggestions are designed to make students gain an appreciation of the challenges of assessing work, including the time taken to assess and to articulate feedback.
1. Give students as much preparation as you can prior to the actual evaluation. Explain how they will be tested and what is expected of them. Providing students with examples of model answers to past papers, for example, gives them a clear idea of the standards they should be aiming for. The Economics Network has excellent resources on this.
2. Before students have to submit an assessed piece of work, post a piece of work with errors and suggest that they:
When students hand in their work for assessment, a way of addressing the multiple tensions referred to above is as follows:
This gives international students a chance of understand better the type of feedback they are likely to receive, and to have an idea of what to expect.
We can provide students with a list of common issues that they can use for self-assessment, and use the same list when we assess the work, as a way to provide consistency of terms of reference. If new patterns of errors emerge, we can distribute them to complement the previous list.
Fullekrug et al. (2007) engaged in an assessment protocol that included students sharing their lecture notes online with other students and with the lecturers. This became an interesting strategy to share understanding of the topic and to complement, clarify and/or correct the notes. The co-created lecture notes were compiled as a comprehensive booklet which led to a sense of group ownership. This type of assessment increased focus and purpose. The staff involved learnt the common difficulties presented by the subject and the time spent assessing the work was effectively reduced.
A word about language. Even though some international students will come to the UK to ‘master the language to perfection’, once they stop attending English language courses their level of written English can deteriorate rapidly. Therefore, whilst as lecturers or teachers we do not have the time or training to provide written commentaries on language use, it is advisable to make a sensitive remark about general language use (e.g. relating to word structure, making plurals and using articles).
Reflecting on our contribution to motivating international students
Throughout this chapter we have referred to the need to engage in reflective processes regarding our contribution to motivate international students. This can be aided by answering questions along the following lines:
We can support our reflection by looking for indicators that international students perceive us as approachable, for example, that we are inspiring them to do work in their own time and that they feel able to contribute to group learning.
As McMahon (2007) puts it ‘No one wants to be a poor teacher; unfortunately, many do not start well.’ In our experience, it is very difficult, if not impossible to have an unbiased perception of our own lecturing and teaching. We need the input of others, including students and colleagues, to balance our perceptions with that of others. For example, being observed by a mentor or a more experienced colleague is useful to monitor our practice. Continuous development to be able to reflect on our performance is very important. We strongly recommend being filmed lecturing, as it can be a very powerful process for reflection and transformation of practice. The audiovisual services in our institution are normally happy to provide the equipment.
All links were last checked on 21 February 2009.
LeFrancois, G.R. (2000) Theories of Human Learning: What the Old Man Said, 4th edition, USA: Ed Wadsworth Publishing Co Inc.
Caruana, V.and Spurling, N. (2007) The Internationalisation of UK Higher Education: a review of selected material. Project Report
Outcomes from institutional audit. Arrangements for international students. Second series
Library services for international students, SCONUL
Jones, E. and Brown, S. (eds) (2007) Internationalising Higher Education: Enhancing Learning, Teaching and Curriculum and a review by Lee, C. (2008)
Fielden, J., Middlehurst, R. and Woodfield, S. (2007) Global Horizons for UK Students. A guide for universities, London: Council for Industry & Higher Education.
Appleton, J., Hirst, S., Leggott, D. Mwanje, Z. Stapleford, J. (2008) Hands-on Internationalisation, edited by David Killick, Leeds Metropolitan University
Assessing group work
Advice for students unfamiliar with assessment practices in Australian higher education
A 14-minute video useful for reflecting about learning and teaching in large classes in general. It is not aimed at learning and teaching international diverse student cohorts so we believe activities need to be introduced more frequently considering a 7–10 minute attention span rather than the 20 minute proposed as we discuss in section 8.
Teaching Large Classes. A video featuring Graham Gibbs
A useful reference for students is the OU’s online resource on mathematics and statistics, Chapter 3 ‘The language of proof’. This can be accessed by guests at
A good source of information for graphics can be found at http://personal.ashland.edu/jgarcia/Macroeconomics%20233/MacroEconPowerpt2004/Chap002a%20Graphing.ppt
The University of Leeds Language Centre has an easy-to-use, self-paced interactive resource that can be an excellent tool to support international students: http://www.leeds.ac.uk/languages/resource/english/graphs/tren6b.htm.
National Student Forum. Annual Report 2008. Available at http://s52158.gridserver.com/NSF_annual_report_2008.pdf
Abdullah, Dr S. (3/11/2008) by email
Alumni Survey (Economics Graduates) (2004)
Alumni Survey (Economics Graduates) (2008)
Brown, S. and Joughin, G. (2007) Assessment of international students: helping clarify puzzling processes in Internationalising Higher Education: Enhancing Learning, Teaching and Curriculum, E. Jones and S. Brown (eds), London: Routledge.
Carroll, J. (2005) 'Strategies for becoming more explicit' in J. Carroll and J. Ryan, (eds), Teaching International Students: Improving Learning for All, London: Routledge.
Cham, J. (1999) Day dreaming http://www.phdcomics.com/comics/archive.php?comicid=127
Colander, D. (2004) ‘The Art of Teaching Economics’, International Review of Economics Education, 3(1), pp. 63–76
De Vita (2005) 'Fostering Intercultural learning through multicultural group work' in J. Carroll and J. Ryan (eds), Teaching International Students: Improving Learning for All, London: Routledge.
Dolan, M (2000) ‘One light, Seven Colours: On the Ability Spectrum and Course Design’, presented at Reaching Out, SEDA Spring Conference, Coventry.
Dolan, M. (1999–to date) unpublished course booklets ‘Lecturing for learning’; ‘Creating Multisensory lectures’ ‘How students learn’; ‘Asking and answering questions’; ‘Encouraging students to ask and answer questions’; ‘Learning in labs tutorials and problem classes’; ‘Small group teaching’; and ‘International Students: Differentiate to Integrate‘.
Economics Network Online Learning and Teaching Materials http://www.economicsnetwork.ac.uk/links/othertl.htm
Fullekrug, M, Astin, I. Taylor, A., Goodwin, A., Hillier, S. and Dolan, M. (2007)
‘Spectacular Sprites: Teaching cutting edge research in higher education’, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 9, 01086.
Hyatt, D. F. (2005) ‘''Yes, a very good point!”: a critical genre analysis of a corpus of feedback commentaries on Master of Education assignments', Teaching in Higher Education,10:3,339–353. DOI: 10.1080/13562510500122222
Jackson, P. (2003) ‘Ten Challenges for Introducing Web-Supported Learning to Overseas Students’, Active Learning in Higher Education, 4, p. 87.
Lantz, C. (2007) ‘Encouraging students’ attendance’, The Higher Education Academy Psychology Network http://www.psychology.heacademy.ac.uk/docs/pdf/p20070803_Encouraging_Attendance.pdf
Long, I. and Barnett, L. (17/11/2008) by email.
National Economics Students Survey 2008 report at http://www.economicsnetwork.ac.uk/projects/stud_survey2008_full.pdf
Macias, I. and Dolan, M. (2006) ‘Show-and-Tell in the Language Class: Grounding the Linguistic and Skills Development in the Personal’ in Assessing language and (inter)cultural competences in HE, Finland: Turku.
Maclellan, E. (2005) ‘Academic achievement: The role of praise in motivating students’, Active Learning in Higher Education, 6, p.194. DOI 10.1177/1469787405057750
Marburger, D. R. (2005) ‘Comparing Student Performance Using Cooperative Learning’, International Review of Economics Education, 4(1), pp. 46–57
McMahon, M.F.(2007) ‘Case study: Employability, Transferable Skills and Student Motivation’, The Higher Education Academy Economics Network http://www.economicsnetwork.ac.uk/showcase/mcmahon_motivation
Petropoulou, D. (2001) ‘Case Study: Motivating Students in Small Classes’
Ramburuth, P. (2001) ‘Cross Cultural Learning Behaviour in Higher Education: Perceptions versus Practice’, Ultibase articles
Ryan, J. (2005) Improving teaching and learning practices for international students: implications for curriculum, pedagogy and assessment, in J. Carroll and J. Ryan (eds) Teaching International Students: Improving Learning for All, London: Routledge.
Sastry, T. and Bekhradnia, B. (2007) 'The academic experience of students in English universities', Higher Education Policy Institute Report
Schmitt, D. (2005) ‘Writing in the international classroom’, in J. Carroll and J. Ryan (eds), Teaching International Students Improving Learning for All, London: Routledge.
Schmitt, N., Schmitt, D., and Clapham, C. (2001). ‘Developing and exploring the behaviour of two new versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test‘, Language Testing, 18, pp. 55–88 cited in Schmitt, D. (2005) ‘Writing in the international classroom’, in J. Carroll and J. Ryan (eds), Teaching International Students: Improving Learning for All, London: Routledge.
Shanahan, M. P. and Meyer, J. H. F. (2003) ‘Measuring and Responding to Variation in Aspects of Students’ Economic Conceptions and Learning Engagement’, International Review of Economics Education, 1(1), pp. 9–35
Sharda, H. (1995) 'Teaching and learning in a cross-cultural environment: Impediments and success factors’. Paper presented at the Australasian Association for Institutional Research Conference, Fremantle, Western Australia.
cited in S. E. Volet and G. Ang (1998) 'Culturally Mixed Groups on International Campuses: an Opportunity for Inter-cultural Learning', Higher Education Research & Development,17(1), pp. 5–23.
Sloman, J. (2002) ‘Case Study: The use of lecture time for workshops’
Sloman, J. and Mitchell, C. (2002) ‘Lectures’
Teaching practice in Economics HE – Results of the 2007 Economics Network Survey of Lecturers
Volet, S. E. and Ang, G.(1998) 'Culturally Mixed Groups on International Campuses: an Opportunity for Inter-cultural Learning', Higher Education Research & Development, 17(1), pp. 5–23. DOI 10.1080/07294360.2012.642838
Volpe, G. (2002) ‘Case studies’
We would like to acknowledge the valuable insights gained from the consultation and discussion day organised by the Economics Network.