Assessment Design and Methods

Steve Cook and Duncan Watson,
Swansea University

Edited by Edmund Cannon,
University of Bristol
Published February 2013

1. Introduction

The analysis of assessment methods is an effervescent aspect of pedagogical inquiry into higher education teaching practices. At the heart of any such analysis must be a clear recognition of the objectives or purpose of assessment. The most obvious function of assessment is as a means of gauging student progress or learning. However, despite the undeniable truth of this statement, a crucial role of assessment is to serve as a means of supporting, encouraging and improving the learning process, rather than simply acting as a method of measuring its extent. Clearly an immediate issue that arises here is the familiar distinction between summative and formative methods of assessment. However, in practice, the border between the two is blurred as all assessment, irrespective of whether it counts towards a final module mark, must clearly seek to develop understanding and assist the learning process. Consequently, consideration of ‘learning’ provides a starting point in the analysis of assessment.

For those not cognisant with the associated ‘learning’ literature, a recommended starting point is Weinstein and Mayer (1986) and their identification of four categories of cognitive learning strategies: rehearsal, elaboration, organisation and comprehension monitoring. Ostensibly, rehearsal refers to the repetition of information; elaboration and organisation emphasise the union of the new understanding with that which preceded it; comprehension monitoring evaluates the knowledge that has been acquired. This variety of options offers significant scope to consider the extent to which they can be embedded within one single methodology, which could provide the instructor with a straightforward system to appraise any single assessment choice. However, whilst it is important to refer to such possibilities, it is not the primary purpose of this chapter to explore them. Instead, such studies and the insights they provide will be recognised as offering a potential structure for assessment design and will be referred as necessary later in this chapter, but will not be considered in detail. Rather, the aim here is to provide an overview of basic ‘summative’ assessment issues, with this then applied to several case studies in order to provoke a debate conducive with the economics instructor further developing the methods that they employ.

To fulfil this aim, the chapter will proceed as follows. In the following section, some general points relating to assessment will be examined. This will involve discussion of the role of technology and the uncertainty associated with its future impact, along with the bigger picture concerning the role of assessment and the limitations and strengths of specific assessment. The following section moves on to consider more ‘structural’ issues, reflecting upon both practicalities and the pedagogical literature. The analysis will then proceed to present specific case studies which not only highlight a range of issues raised previously, but also provide examples of practice and a statistical analysis of the impact of differing assessment schemes.

2. Main content

2.1 Focus

The floating bicycle, paper underpants and the book on interplanetary etiquette? These are just a few of the predictions made by BBC’s Tomorrow’s World that went a little awry. To be fair to the programme’s makers, technological predictions are notoriously difficult to stage accurately, and it is that same uncertainty over what will be genuinely useful that governs the consequences of technology for assessment opportunities. However, despite this somewhat uncertain foundation, it remains necessary to address such predictions for technological advancement before this chapter can begin to consider the potential of the various ‘new’ assessment methods.

Whilst there are numerous ways of distinguishing between types of assessment, the standard approach is to make a distinction between summative and formative elements. It is arguably the latter, with assessment designed expressly to further assist the learning environment, which is at the forefront of the technological revolution. With the diffusion of numerous gadgets (such as the smart phone and the iPad) and the development of apps designed to meet specific staff and student needs, individualised feedback is increasingly available. No longer should large class sizes hinder the provision of formative assessment, with interactive exercises becoming ever more straightforward to implement. Data from the ‘one minute paper’, where students are typically asked ‘What is the most important thing you learned today?’ and ‘What is the least clear issue you still have?’, can be easily collected so that the lecturer can react quickly and keenly.

Whilst we can predict that the likes of SMS texting, ‘tweaching’ (see Gerald 2009 for an introduction and elaboration of this method) and subsequent related extensions will continue to play an active role in encouraging interactive lectures, the overall environment is one of immense uncertainty but also one of exciting opportunities. Fortunately for the authors of this chapter, the present analysis is focused on the more stable environment of summative assessment. Its purpose is to consider how assessment can contribute to one ultimate goal in undergraduate teaching: to enable students to think like economists, rather than adopting the more shallow view of economic relations that can be found so readily in poor journalism. Whilst concisely expressed, this is by no means a narrow objective, as the development of an ‘economics skill set’ clearly delivers a range of transferable analytical, quantitative and discursive skills to assist students in a range of non-economics professions or careers. However, developing the ability to think like an economist culminates in a general appreciation of the effectiveness of econometric and discursive assessment tools, as articulated by Santos and Lavin (2004):

‘One way to bring students closer to what economists do is to implement an empirical economics research curriculum that teaches students how to access, chart, and interpret macroeconomic data; search and access peer-reviewed journal articles; and formulate, in writing, positions on economic issues’ (p.148).

It is this summary of aims that motivates the main case study provided in the chapter which recounts the creation of ‘twin’ modules designed to ensure the development of literature reviewing and the practical econometric skills. In addition, given the current league table driven environment that dictates planning in higher education, there is also another goal that should be taken into account when considering the assessment methods employed in these modules. This is pertinently advertised by Grimes et al. (2004):

‘Students with an external locus-of-control orientation, who believe they have little or no control over their environment, are less likely to assume personal responsibility for their course performance and are more prone to blame powerful others or outside factors, such as luck or fate, to explain observed outcomes.’ (p.143).

The possibility that assessment, whilst it must be constructed to meet key learning outcomes, can also directly contribute to the likelihood of the student locating the blame for poor performance at the hands of the instructor, has to be taken into account and minimised. Obviously this is not to say that blame should necessarily be accepted, but rather that via the careful construction of assessment, the issue of blame should not arise. When addressing this particularly delicate complexity, it is not simply the type of assessment employed that is important. Suddenly issues such as the quantity of assessment become increasingly pertinent (avoiding over-reliance on end of period examinations), the quality of the feedback mechanisms adopted become more relevant, and ultimately the distinctions in overall mark derivation are forced under scrutiny (observe how the Applied Econometrics module, as described below in one of the case studies, makes use of ‘best out of...’ to encourage and nurture students’ perception of their ability to have a greater control over their final grade).

2.2 Summary of the structural issues

In a widely influential paper, Walstad (2001) summarises several major factors that impact on the discipline’s undergraduate assessment. It is these factors that are appropriated here to structure the general issues raised by assessment. The following concerns are particularly pivotal: test selection; written versus oral assignments; grade evaluation; opportunities for self-assessment and feedback; testing for higher ordered thinking; and psychology of the economics student.

2.2.1 Test selection

A cursory sweep of standard assessment methods would find reference to the following forms: essays; short answers; numerical problems; multiple-choice; and true-false. There are numerous criteria that then can be adopted to determine the preferred option. Whilst it should be noted that these will be rated differently by the individual assessor, the issues presented in Figure 1 can be considered carefully when designing the most appropriate assessment methods. This is particularly important as there may be conflict between specific criteria.

Figure 1: Choosing a type of assessment

Here, to introduce these key issues, we compare the advantages and disadvantages associated with two common assessment strategies: the multiple-choice examination and the essay-based examination. It should be noted that this choice does not reflect some pedagogical preference for multiple-choice examinations over alternative methods such as short problem-solving questions, as ably discussed further in Walstad (2001), which can provide an excellent means to assess a student’s understanding of economic analysis. Instead, this reflects the choice of our Level 1 Principles of Economics case study where we assess how shifting from a common framework of a combination of multiple-choice and essay assessment to a greater focus on continuous assessment impacts on student achievement.

a) Multiple-choice assessment

Arguably, in this case many a lecturer will be particularly motivated by the ease of the assessment construction. The economy of scoring merely reinforces the convenience of multiple-choice testing, especially when one considers that ‘Principles of Economics’ modules tend to be relatively large. In addition to these two quite persuasive influences that favour the use of multiple-choice assessment, the possibility of subjective grading is removed and therefore students are not left questioning the rationale behind their final mark. Certainly, this simple means of diminishing the possibility of student grievance is a benefit that cannot be underestimated; however it is not a justification for overuse. Unfortunately, the cumulative level of expediency this form of assessment offers, has led to a staple and unquestioning reliance on multiple-choice testing in situations where other variations of evaluation may be equally, if not more, appropriate.

Because of the intricacy involved when measuring the propriety of its use, a couple of issues associated with the use of multiple-choice assessment are considered in more detail below, these being the frequency of assessment and the use of negative marking:

i. Frequency

Misuse (overuse and inappropriate use) has exposed the multiple-choice method of assessment to the possibility of criticism in a variety of forms, the most common of which is that it is a crude instrument of assessment. This would suggest that, not only should it not be the sole means of evaluating student knowledge, neither should it operate as the primary assessment mechanism. Moreover, when it is used there should be meticulous consideration of how its educational value can be maximised. A traditional, annual, multiple-choice exam, whilst providing flexibility to the instructor in terms of allowing a broader coverage of material considered in the lectures, provides limited direct feedback. It also encourages the kind of mnemonically driven learning pathways that can hinder a more flexible and creative response to the material. However, an innovation by Kelley (1973) does offer a system of frequent multiple-choice testing designed to give detailed feedback in a large lecture context. This has reinvigorated the role of multiple-choice and made it particularly attractive as advancements in technology, particularly clickers, facilitate an interactive environment in which student responses can be immediately accessed. Enabling instantaneous feedback and offering opportunities for students to respond to and learn from their mistakes is considered by many leading voices to be crucial for student perceptions of their own learning experience. In relation to this, Light (1992) reports on the types of courses students appreciate (or in his terminology, ‘respect’) and which they feel they are learning most from. With the bonus of unique numbers assigned to individual clickers this revived assessment method can also be used in conjunction with other more practical departmental demands such as attendance monitoring.

ii. Negative marking

Multiple-choice testing is of course notoriously plagued by the nature of gambling odds. Considering the positive opportunities presented by guessing, students can potentially derive marks despite possessing a weak knowledge of the subject material. ‘Negative marking’ is one response to this inherent problem, as a system which punishes incorrect answers to deter guessing. However, such apparent solutions create problems in themselves. Consider, for example, this instance of student feedback obtained by the authors in response to a survey of student opinion:

‘I do not consider negative marking to be fair, with regard to essays that are positively marked… students may not give an answer to a question they are reasonably sure of the answer because they are afraid of getting it wrong and losing marks they have already gained…All the students I have spoken to do not like negative marking as it means the time is a greater constraint as it puts extra pressure on each answer… and mistakes are a greater threat.’

It is more difficult to counteract this psychological effect of negative marking which can actually impinge upon and inhibit the instinctive thought processes of certain student groups. The fact that, for example, different (often unfairly lower) marks will be generated for groups who are on average risk averse and less likely to answer questions deemed to be difficult, introduces the potential for issues of discrimination.

b. Essay-based assessment

The opportunities for guessing discussed above can also be considered in a different context. Particularly effective when constructing a short answer, there can be a tendency in the more confident student to ‘bluff’ knowledge. Unsurprisingly, therefore, to counteract such strategy, lecturers will tend to prefer setting more involved essay questions that will isolate the genuinely studious from the opportunist. Whilst short answers and multiple-choice can be carefully designed to test both comprehension and analytical skills, there is a widespread tendency to view essays as a more versatile and accurate method to measure higher levels of cognitive learning. In terms of Bloom et al.’s six levels of learning, the multiple-choice exam – whilst focused on knowledge and comprehension – can also be carefully designed to partially test application, analysis and evaluation. In contrast, Walstad (2006) summarises how essay questions can successfully cover all levels of learning:

‘An essay question challenges students to select, organize, and integrate economics material to construct a response—all features of synthesis. An essay question is also better for testing complex achievement related to the application of concepts, analysis of problems, or evaluation of decisions. This demonstration of complex achievement and synthesis is said to be of such importance as a learning objective that it is used to justify the extra time and energy required by the instructor for grading essay tests.’

There are, however, numerous pitfalls that should be considered before blindly accepting the essay as the ultimate testing method. Other than the additional pressures on staff time, these include:

i. Unreliability of grading

Questions will not necessarily enable the student to adequately demonstrate the genuine level of their achievement, or facilitate their expression of what they know. Consider, for example, the question ‘How does the monopoly union model compare with the other models of union activity?’ This structure should be considered indistinct on two levels. In the first instance, it is unclear how many models the student is expected to consider. Secondly, the language does not convey the economic criteria that should be used in any comparison being made. That a good student should accurately discern the terminology of an imprecise or ambiguous question is a fallacy, as excellent students are as prone as any to fall into the (mis)interpretation trap. In fact it is fairer to assume that all students regardless of ability are inherently disadvantaged by the chasm between what the examiner expects and yet so often fails to articulate, and what they select as relevant under pressure.

The reaction to problems generated through ambiguity, however, should not necessarily involve being overly precise in the vocabulary used in examination questions. A question such as ‘Does the monopoly union model or the XXX model better describe the UK car industry in the 1980s?’ avoids question ambiguity but arguably becomes a matter of rote learning that allows for insufficient testing of higher order skills or independent reading. Instead pre-examination guidance becomes crucial. The student should appreciate that there is no unique means to rank the relevance of specific economic models. Students who have shown more initiative in their independent reading will then have more to discuss and therefore greater means to demonstrate in-depth knowledge and their ability to meet the module’s learning outcomes.

ii. Scoring

Providing detailed student feedback for essays is inevitably time consuming. There is, and perhaps should not be, any escape from this fact. Indeed most available solutions to the interminable issue of time are inadequate. For instance, team-based marking introduced in order to ensure that temporal demands are minimised, has the potential to interfere substantially with the reliability of the resultant scoring.

iii. Coverage of content

It has been mentioned previously that the multiple-choice test can encompass a much wider range of taught material. In contrast, essay based assessment necessarily encourages uneven content coverage. As essays are generally used in examination periods, this can inadvertently endorse an alternative type of success by chance, where the fortunate students correctly guess which particular subset of module content to revise. This can be particularly prevalent when students are pressured, facing frequent examinations in a short period of time. In these circumstances, anticipating examination content can become a game of chance arising as a result of time constraints with inaccurate prediction of revision topics potentially resulting in dramatic reductions in module marks. Clearly, the structure of degree schemes can impact upon this, with schemes involving a clustering of assessment across a range of modules causing particular problems.

The basic conclusion from this brief description is that there is no single assessment method that is ideal in every respect in all circumstances. The available research does not conclude that any one assessment method is somehow superior in the teaching of economics. All have both advantages and disadvantages, and a combination of assessment techniques must be recommended in order to ensure a system that is, at least, approaching fair. The issue of assessment therefore begins to pivot around programme level variation. Whilst the extensive use of multiple-choice testing in principles of economics courses can be particularly understood, other modules must be flexible and explore the appropriateness of alternative methods. It is only through such variation in assessment practices that students will be able to maximise their performance and fully embrace their learning experience. It is imperative to aspire to such a system for, as has been alluded to previously, it is poor assessment performance that directly influences comparably poor evaluation of the instructor, institution and discipline.

2.2.2 Written versus oral assessment

For certain students, essays can hamper rather than assist self-expression. In response to this, lecturers should consider other methods that allow students more flexibility over how they express their views and critique economic orthodoxy. For example, it is now standard for economics to offer dissertation modules. Such modules allow students to explore more profound levels of writing, where critique becomes the core objective, and time facilitates a sophisticated textual response to the material. Arguably of equal significance, is consideration of how the assessment interacts with learning support material. The ‘problem set’, for example, provides an alternative assessment method that is regularly employed in economics teaching. The main advantage is the clear means it provides to direct the student, as such assessment is typically tied to textbook. However, the dissertation module permits the student to shift away from this comfortable environment and strike out alone into research, as the textbook is rightly sidelined and the student is able to embrace a more eclectic and wide ranging set of economic sources.

To demonstrate a skill set in economics, writing proficiency is clearly vital. However, it should also be noted that a mastery of economics will also encompass a proficiency in speaking skills: ‘speaking ability may be more useful for students because they are more likely to have to speak about economic issues than write about them’ (Walstad, 2001). A similar argument is present in Smith’s (1998) reference to ‘learning by speaking’ with reference to the teaching of statistics. In response to this need, a plethora of approaches is available. Assuming class size is not an issue, case studies can be used promote the oral exploration of economic ideas. Alternatively, but often unpopular with students due to fears of free riding behaviour, are the use of group presentations. This becomes more straight-forward in a business school environment, where economists can utilise their multidisciplinary skills set and be ably supported by business students who are focused on more specific disciplines such as accountancy, marketing and entrepreneurship. The group presentation also minimises the costs to the lecturer in terms of student evaluation. However, careful thought is advised. Siegfried (1998) in a review of US provision in the 1990s, for example, concluded ‘the amount and type of student writing assignments and oral presentations in many programs not only fail to prepare students for the demands they will encounter after graduation, but they also limit the ability of students to demonstrate their mastery of economics while still in college’.  (p.67).

It could be argued that the potential of oral assessment has been reinvigorated by the introduction of interactive engagement. For example, more spontaneous activities such as ‘think-pair-share’, where discussion points can be offered by the instructor in order to ignite immediate discussion and critical reasoning. It is interactive engagement which is more effective in generating fundamental conceptual understanding. It also provides an opportunity to develop valuable, quick-thinking, life-skills for the world beyond academia.

2.2.3 Grade evaluation

Once the type of assessment has been determined, perhaps the most time consuming aspect for the economics instructor is the determination of marking criteria. This in itself should not be treated as a unidirectional issue. Being able to describe complex ideas in a short period of time will encourage a specific marking criterion that also celebrates the in-class test. In contrast, if the objective is to enable a more flexible approach to a wider range of topics then reports or presentations may be more apposite.

Perhaps of greater importance is how grading can be used to fully appreciate the student’s economic proficiencies; a particularly pertinent issue for maximising employability opportunities. A reaction, as championed by Walstad (2001), is the use of portfolio assessment. This involves a representative collection of work that more comprehensively displays a student’s progress-in-learning and achievement. Such a study compilation necessarily lends itself to an increased variation in assessment methodology. For example, reflective learning exercises can be regularly employed, as described below in the ‘Topics in Contemporary Economics’ case study presented below. Assessment timings should also be considered, with any example of exit velocity in beginning-of-course and end-of-course marks providing further means to advertise improvements in the student’s ability.

2.2.4 Self-assessment and feedback

It is common within the higher education sector to ensure a rigid separation between the formative and summative elements of assessment. With the chapter’s focus on summative assessment, a clear motivation of assessment becomes the grading of students and therefore the justification for the degree classifications at graduation. However, its practices should not be limited to this core aim:

a. Frequency (again)

Frequent assessment provides a greater opportunity for students to assess their own progress. As mentioned earlier, this is offered in the seminar systems that are typically adopted in principles of economics courses. Regular small multiple-choice examinations, rather than one large exam during key examination periods, afford a means for students to familiarise themselves with their development and adapt accordingly. This is neatly demonstrated by the evolution in undergraduate provision at Swansea University, as summarised in Case Study 1.

Frequent assessment also provides invaluable feedback to instructors, who can respond immediately to the exposed needs by adapting their lecture line-up to augment the effectiveness of their teaching. There are of course also more involved means to provide these opportunities. Walstad (2001), for example, refers to students being asked to keep a journal on current economic events. This can open a continuous dialogue between staff and student that also presents a fertile source for more fluid opportunities for assessment. The use of ‘reflective diaries’ provides a means to further enhance this dialogue and offers more innovative means to assess student progress.

b. Scoring key

Assessment must be seen as more than just testing or grading acquired knowledge with a numerical signifier. Therefore the instructor should always ensure that feedback mechanisms are integral and carefully constructed. By creating a feedback sheet that combines a scoring key with detailed comment, the student is more likely to find feedback valuable at the same time as understanding exactly how the subsequent mark is derived. It is also imperative that the nature of this feedback sheet should be discussed prior to any assessment deadlines to ensure that students are less likely to fall foul of any common pitfalls. Appreciating what is expected is itself part of the learning process, as riddling assessment with snares does not necessarily isolate the gifted. Such discussion about the nature of the feedback sheet also assists instructors in avoiding grading bias, alerts them to the possible ambiguities/misinterpretation of the question and facilitates a simple and direct means to justify the differences in grade margins.

2.2.5 Testing higher ordered thinking: retention

A potentially puzzling result exposed by previous research is the doubt raised over the long-term impact of economics instruction. Stigler (1963), an early critic of teaching in principles courses, posited that if an essay test on current economic problems was given to graduates five years after attending a university, there would be no difference in performance between alumni who had taken a ‘conventional’ one-year course in economics and those who had never taken a course in economics. Trials testing the ‘Stigler hypothesis’ are mixed. For instance, Walstad and Allgood (1999) find that those who possess a background in economics will outperform their non-economic counterparts, but also find that the overall difference in test scores is relatively small.

Given this potential problem posed by knowledge deterioration, testing for higher ordered thinking becomes a vital element of any assessment strategy. Progression is crucial, and this necessitates early assessment that measures whether basic concepts have been mastered, followed by subsequent analysis that is focused on demonstrating whether students have revealed themselves to be ‘thinking like an economist’. This process advocates and reiterates the original work by Hamlin and Janssen (1987), that assessment should be constructed to encourage, if not ensure, ‘active learners’. Such philosophy is founded on the premise that, when students are asked to write in conjunction with reading lecture materials, they are more likely to have a deeper understanding of the concepts and connections between theory and economic outcome. Crowe and Youga (1986), for example, advocate the use of short writing assignments (typically up to 10 minutes written in the lecture room).

2.2.6 Psychology of the economics student

Behavioural economics provides a means to appreciate the theoretical limitations of the assumption of ‘rational economic man’. By referring to the behaviour of the student, it also offers considerable potential for improving the learning experience. One example of this can be found in Rabin (1998), who explores how concepts from behavioural economics can be employed to illuminate weaknesses in the student outlook (such as low attendance and the determinants of poor test performance through inadequate preparation). Allgood (2001) goes beyond the discursive and constructs a utility maximising model based on achieving target grades. Once the grade threshold is achieved, effort falls. This can help us in the appreciation of low attendance or why course innovations may not necessarily lead to improvements in results. There are, however, further lessons to be learnt for assessment practices.

One assessment method which is arguably underused is the application of experimental economics to take advantage of the classroom as forum for competitive economic gaming. This recent innovation has been encouraged by the development of key resources such as Bergstrom and Miller (1997). The underutilisation can be partially explained by the belief that these games, rather than providing assessment opportunities, represent a means to introduce motivational and pedagogical exercises. The first problematic issue is that these mechanisms are arguably reliant on technology and that without that technology finalising grading can be prohibitive. The second difficulty is that there are inherent equity issues raised by generating marks through competitive games. Thirdly, experimental economists have voiced the need for cash payments to ensure clear motivation behind student behaviour. Whilst the higher fees that will be paid by students may offer further opportunities to introduce such activities, the expense involved will not be attractive to departmental heads.

Considering the limited duration of the knowledge instilled by economics teaching, there are also opportunities, through the careful design of assessment, to celebrate and reaffirm the skills that the discipline of economics develops. Walstad (2001), for example, notes how the psychology of investors in the stock market can be used to encourage a perception that economics teaching is an investment rather than a consumption good.

2.2.7 Discussion

In a US data study between 1995 and 2005, Schaur et al. (2012) evaluate the factors determining the choice of assessment methods for US universities. As would be expected, variables such as class size and staff teaching loads are significant determinants of the preference for essays and longer written forms of assessment. Despite these obvious reasons for resisting other methods of assessment the primary goal of any testing should still be to motivate students to think, and therefore, write like economists. Whilst it is vital that an economics programme should utilise a wide range of assessment methods, there are also problems that occur if the bias leans towards the other end of the assessment spectrum. Complete reliance on highly structured tests will not adequately develop the tools required to think and write like an economist either. Ultimately these shorter tests will fail to suitably challenge students and therefore restrict module performances to processes of basic recall and ‘brain-training’. The need for an alternative to both of these extremes of assessment, that unites only their positive aspects, is virtually palpable and it is posited that the case study in the next section may offer one such hybrid solution. The study describes how data analysis can be combined with literature review methodology in a manner that ensures delivery of the required cognitive skills is at the centre of the assessment experience.

2.3 Case Studies

Case study 1: First Year Economic Theory

When considering assessment methods in economics, arguably one of the most interesting potential case studies concerns introductory economic theory. Amongst the various challenges faced by those delivering such a module are the issues of setting the tone for subsequent years of study and addressing the transition between school and university education. For many years, first year undergraduate economic theory at Swansea University has been split into two modules. Both labelled Principles of Economics, the ‘A’ version of the module is taken by students arriving with post-GCSE experience of Economics (A-level, AS-level, foundation year, IB etc.), while students without such a background are enrolled on Principles of Economics B. These year-long modules combine both standard introductory microeconomic and macroeconomic content and are structured in such a fashion as to equally prepare students from differing backgrounds for the demands of their future studies. In an attempt to increase student engagement, 2009–10 saw the introduction of a new assessment scheme for Principles of Economics A. The ‘old’ scheme comprised of a mid-year January multiple-choice examination, an in-class disclosed examination and a standard summer (May/June) examination.[1] The weightings attached to these components were 30 per cent, 10 per cent and 60 per cent respectively. The new assessment scheme involved the introduction of six within-tutorial mini-assessments spread throughout the year with the best five marks to be included at weighting of 4 per cent each. The revised assessment scheme therefore involved a reduction in the weighting of other assessment components to accommodate the tutorial-based assessment, and consequently involved a corresponding change in the content of these components. The resulting structure was then: tutorial-based exercises (20 per cent), January examination (20 per cent), in-class examination (10 per cent) and summer examination (50 per cent). It should be noted that these summative assessment components are in addition to formative elements contained within the module.

The revised assessment scheme sought to achieve a number of objectives. First, it aimed to increase the extent to which students work consistently throughout the year by introducing an additional six elements of assessment within term. Second, it aimed to introduce a mechanism for students to gauge their understanding of topics and material as soon as possible. As a number of elements of the syllabus will be familiar to students from their earlier studies, there is always a possibility of students focusing their attention and efforts on those topics which are new and paying insufficient attention to previously considered concepts and terminology. Obviously this is not to be encouraged as, aside from the necessity for understanding to be refreshed, it will prove particularly problematic when material is presented in a different, extended or advanced manner to that previously experienced. However, this may only come to light when confronted with assessment which forces closer examination of topics in formal setting. The use of frequent lower weighted assessment allows any misdirection of efforts or gaps in knowledge to be addressed quickly ahead of becoming substantive issues detected in a more weighty assessment component. A third obvious intention of the in-tutorial assessment was to increase the preparedness of students for their more heavily weighted assessments later in the module. The regularity of testing not only ensures a familiarity with the ‘rules and regulations’ of examinations and settles students ahead of the more substantive latter assessment components, but also allows knowledge to build progressively through the year.

In terms of the structure or mechanics of the tutorial-based assessment, this was very straightforward to devise. The module already contained a series of fortnightly tutorials which involved students discussing and working through previously circulated exercise sheets designed to illustrate material presented in lectures. The expectation is that students attempt the exercises ahead of the sessions and then focus more closely with their tutor during tutorials on those elements they feel warrant further analysis to improve their understanding. The tutorial-based assessments were introduced to six sessions (three in each teaching block). This meant that time allocated to the circulated exercises sheets was reduced to allow time to undertake a 10-minute mini-assessment. In each instance, the assessment involved a series of very short questions which were very similar in nature to those covered in the circulated exercise sheet. This reveals a further objective of the assessment in its role as a further prompt to attempt the circulated exercise sheets and engagement with the tutor to resolve any uncertainties concerning material. An example of the nature of the tutorial-based assessment is provided below. This simple mini-test provides students and tutors alike with a quick means of assessing understanding of material covered. In this particular case, the four-part assessment picks up upon issues in consumer choice. Alternatively phrased the questions ask: ‘What is implied by the positioning of an indifference curve?’, ‘What is implied by the slope of an indifference curve?’, ‘What is implied by the shape of an indifference curve?’, ‘How can we construct/manipulate/employ budget lines/constraints’. It can be seen that the exercises provided are simple in nature to assess quickly understanding in a manner that goes beyond that afforded by multiple-choice examination. However, the demands on the tutor are minimal as the marking involved is very straightforward and hence feedback can be provided to all students extremely quickly. Importantly, these are crucial issues and the assessment of student understanding of them can be assessed quickly ahead of formalising the knowledge to move on to consider substitution and income effects.

The feedback on the revised assessment can be considered in two ways. First, changes in module marks can be considered. Information on this is provided in Table 1. However, before considering the figures provided, a number of issues must be recognised. The information to be considered provides broad measures of student performance on the Principles of Economics A module over a three-year period. Table 1 provides three sets of information on the two Principles of Economics modules. The first set of information simply provides the number of students taking the module each year. Clearly version ‘B’ is larger than ‘A’. The second set of information presents the change in the average module mark relative to the year before assessment on Principles of Economics A was revised. In this instance, the other module which does not have a revised assessment method acts as something of a control (albeit in a loose sense). The ‘Average Difference’ column provides information on average difference in the marks students obtain on this module and those they obtain elsewhere. By considering the relative performance both across modules for each year and then over a number of years, some control for cohort effects is present and a snapshot of the general impact of changes in assessment design can be inferred. However, it is recognised that a variety of factors (different students, different questions etc.) make it difficult to identify the true impact of a change in assessment.

Table 1

Level-1 Economic Theory: Student Numbers, Mean Mark and Relative Module Performance


Principles of Economics A

Principles of Economics B


Change in Mean Mark

Average Difference


Change in Mean Mark

Average Difference















200–-2010: Introduction of Tutorial-Based Assessment for Principles of Economics A








An example of the Level 1 tutorial-based assessment

1. The indifference curves below (denoted as E, F and G) relate to differing levels of utility obtained from the consumption of Goods X and Y. One of the indifference curves corresponds to 2 utils, another corresponds to 8 utils, while another corresponds to 6 utils. Which curve depicts 8 utils?

2. Consider the indifference curve depicted in the diagram below. Annotate this diagram by marking two distinct points on this indifference curve. Label these points ‘C’ and ‘D’ in such a way that point ‘D’ corresponds to a lower marginal rate of substitution than point ‘C’. Using a single sentence, explain your answer.

3. It is known that the indifference curve for two goods is L-shaped. What does this tell you about the relationship between these goods?

4. Consider the budget line (BL) depicted in the diagram below for given prices of Goods X and Y and a given level of money income. Suppose that following the drawing of BL, the price of Good X remains the same, the price of Good Y doubles, and the level of money income doubles. Sketch the new budget line on the diagram below.

From consideration of the results presented in Table 1 it can be seen that a dramatic jump in the mean for Principles of Economics A occurred following the introduction of a revised assessment scheme. From inspection of the results for Principles of Economics B, it is apparent that this module experienced an increase in its mean mark at the same time. However, the increases in marks on the modules differ, with the module with in-tutorial assessment experiencing an increase of 8.5 percentage points in its first year following the change, in comparison to the increase of 4.9 percentage points on the other module. This is indicative of an increase above and beyond a cohort effect. Similarly, when considering the average difference between the marks obtained by students on this module and elsewhere, this narrowed for Principles of Economics A (from being an average of 7.6 percentage points below to only 1.4 percent points below) while it widened on the corresponding Principles of Economics B module (on average students scored 6.6 percentage points less in 2008–09, and 6.8 percentage points less in 2009–10). It should be noted that historically these theory-based modules do return lower marks than other application-based modules taken at Level 1. The results obtained in the second year of delivery of the module under the revised assessment policy (2010–11) make for interesting reading. On the one hand, it appears that the noted improvement in the previous year has been reversed, with the gulf between the mark obtained on the module and elsewhere widening (it increases to 3.2 percentage points). In combination with the increased average mark, this is indicative of a cohort effect, with marks increasing in general, but not by as much on this module as elsewhere. However, at the same time the corresponding gulf for the Principles of Economics B module has widened by more (2.4 percentage points from –6.8 per cent to –9.2 per cent). This would then suggest that a general disparity between theoretical and non-theoretical modules has been less acute for the module where a revised assessment policy has been implemented. Considering the results presented for all years available, the introduction of a new assessment structure has led to an increase in marks and a narrowing of the differences between the module concerned and others when considered from its time of implementation to the present day, while the module without changes in assessment has seen the gulf between it and others widen. In terms of qualitative feedback on in-tutorial assessment, its introduction has received favourable comment from students and staff alike.

Considering the level of assessment on the Level 1 economic theory module, the summative assessment is entirely based upon examination, although an element of it is disclosed (10 per cent), six elements are mini-assessment or quizzes (20 per cent) and a further element is multiple-choice examination (20 per cent). Therefore only 50 per cent is based upon an essay-based examination. To consider this assessment split relative to other Economics departments (or groups) in the UK, a survey was conducted involving 32 departments.[2] The information gleaned from this on the assessment of Level 1 economic theory is reported in Figure 2 below. This chart provides a breakdown of the examination/coursework split for analogous Level 1 economic theory modules along with a figure indicating the percentage of departments adopting this approach. It can be seen that the most popular form of assessment is via 100 per cent examination (28 per cent of surveyed departments adopting this approach), followed by 60:40 and 70:30 splits (both being adopted by 19 per cent of departments). However, the division of assessment between these two components could mask a range of differing numbers of assessments. This is of particular importance as to the extent that one of the aims of assessment should be to increase engagement, the frequency of assessment is of importance. For example, Principles of Economics A, has four forms of assessment but nine points of summative assessment are employed. Figure 3, containing the results for 32 UK Economics departments, surprisingly shows that a single element of summative assessment is the most popularly employed frequency of assessment (25 per cent of departments surveyed), followed by two and then three points of assessment (22 per cent and 19 per cent respectively).

Considering the outcomes noted above and the information contained in the survey of economics departments, the new assessment scheme has proved successful and has also led to a high frequency of assessment relative to the national norm. However, given the improvements in outcomes and student experience, along with the relative ease of implementation, the additional resources required for such a change are a very small price to pay for a huge return.

Figure 2: A survey of Level 1 Economic Theory assessment weightings

(Exam : Coursework; Percentage of institutions)

Figure 3: A survey of Level 1 Economic Theory assessment components

(Number of components; Percentage of institutions)

[1] The ‘disclosed’ examination involves the provision of two essay titles approximately six weeks ahead of the examination date. Students are asked to prepare for both, with the actual essay to be attempted not revealed until turning over the test paper in the examination venue.

[2] A survey of UK Economics Departments was conducted to consider provision relating to all of the case studies considered herein (Level 1 economic theory; final year dissertation; final year econometrics). Results are reported for instances where information was available for all areas covered by the case studies. The desire to use a consistent sample across all case studies resulted in the use of 32 departments.

Case study 2: Thinking and writing like an economist

The chapter has referred to the numerous mechanisms employed by instructors to assign grades and to therefore categorise a cohort according to ability levels. It is important, however, to recognise that they are also a multi-dimensional tool with which to encourage students to identify their own learning problems and indeed for teachers to recognise the limitations of their own assessment processes. This section provides a case study of two inter-linked courses that demonstrate such a multi-dimensional character and also describes how an economics programme can be constructed to ensure it delivers that primary requirement, to think and write like an economist.

a. Introduction

The inexperienced instructor will often perceive the essay as a self-fulfilling means to encourage the development of writing skills. This attitude neglects to take account of the time constraints facing students, which inevitably limit their development in this key area. Often encountering numerous deadlines that encourage a form of ‘just in time’ time management, learning how to construct ideas and convey them coherently becomes secondary to simply putting words onto the page (ostensibly regurgitating lecture notes). These conditions are not conducive to the refining of writing skills, which typically require continual and meticulous revision. In recognition of this issue, Economics departments will frequently seek a resolution by offering a dissertation option. However, these courses (and the individual supervisors) differ in the extent to which they nurture (and indeed teach) the skill of writing and that of time management that facilitates the writing process. The specific nature of these courses will differ, but we can typically conclude that a supervisory system will be adopted and a word limit of approximately 10,000 words will be employed. However, seeking that elusive goal of ‘writing like an economist’ requires careful consideration of curriculum design and course development processes. Economics, arguably the premier social science, is perceived to be a valuable discipline because of how it demands the ability to calculate and to quantify. In the right hands this guarantees that superficial untested conclusions are avoided, and provides precise policy recommendations that maintain a powerful subject influence. However, the claim that such proficiencies hold over the discipline can also be to the detriment of the other less influential, but equally vital, practical skills that include the delivery of ideas comprehensively and articulately to a reader. This tendency towards mathematical exactitude is arguably the Achilles’ heel of economics, especially in a plural post-modern world that has systematically questioned the prioritising of such absolutes. It certainly becomes a limitation when it impacts upon the effective teaching of the subject, and encourages a bias that neglects the discursive and philosophical skills that stimulate the mind to think laterally and question what is fixed. In general this tendency towards calculation favours an assessment system too focused on testing quantitative methods skills. Consequentially, the dissertation is then dictated to by the desire to exercise the practical value of the theoretical econometric courses provided earlier in the degree process and grading inevitably concentrates on how successful the student has been in assimilating and understanding these mathematical elements. The writing skills, so prioritised by the general course aims, become the casualty of dissertation chapters that are focused on copying and pasting technical expressions to advertise the complexity of the methodologies that have been utilised.

Below, a case study is provided that demonstrates how these problems can be avoided. In summary, it involves the creation of two inter-linked courses, Topics in Contemporary Economics and Applied Econometrics. This particular instance of cross-course symbiosis reveals how positive the effects of co-operative assessment can be, and how it can be used to ensure that the whole curriculum successfully tests the higher-order learning objectives.

b. The modules

i. Module 1: Topics in Contemporary Economics

To facilitate the enhancement of writing skills, this course tests literature review methods whilst also providing an opportunity to assess the student’s ability to undertake a significant piece of work that tests the following key characteristics of research methods in economics:

  • Interdisciplinary research: ‘Economics is a separate discipline because it has its separate, distinct body of theory and empirical knowledge. The subject-matter areas using economics are inherently multidisciplinary. For example, consumer economics draws from psychology, natural resource economics from biology, and economic policy from political science. The various subject-matter areas are dependent on a common disciplinary base. Thus, while economics is a separate discipline much of what we eventually do with it- its applications- become multidisciplinary subject matter work’ (Ethridge, 2004).
  • Problem-solving research: ‘Problem-solving Research is designed to solve a specific problem for a specific decision maker. [It] often results in prescriptions or recommendation on decisions or actions’ (Ethridge, 2004).

The dissertation module is given a weighting of 30 credits, thereby accounting for a quarter of the student’s final year of study. As shown in Figure 4, for Economics departments that offer dissertation options (84 per cent of our sample of departments do offer a dissertation), this is the most popular weighting applied.

Figure 4: A survey of Level 3 Economic dissertation credit weightings

(Credits; Percentage of institutions)

Aside from considering the weighting attached to final year dissertations, the nature of the associated assessment process can be considered. Rather than just simply submitting a final written dissertation and receiving marks for according to the quality of the writing, additional assessed elements can be included. From inspection of Figure 5, it can be seen that approximately one-half of our sample of departments (47 per cent) have dissertation modules and derive the student’s grade according to the final written submission. The standard dissertation will therefore involve the student working throughout the academic year, and find them heavily reliant on supervision guidance and randomised feedback for an understanding of their progress. This framework can cultivate two substantial deficiencies. Firstly, students can be subject to unintentional discrimination due to the differing level of support offered by individual supervisors. This is often due to unavoidable staff absences throughout the year and/or reflects differentials in workloads, although the varying definitions of what the role of supervisor should actually be can also play a significant part in creating disparity in how students are guided through the process. Secondly, given the other assessment demands imposed on students, there is also the risk of falling into the trap of procrastination where dissertation work is continually delayed for the sake of other deadlines. To minimise these problems a more structured format should be considered. Such structuring can also increase the likelihood that the skills associated with the course’s learning objectives are cultivated across the full range of student abilities. While smaller structured assessments can be linked to meeting ‘lower-order learning objectives of knowledge and comprehension’, as described in Dynan and Cate (2009), they can also be used to aid the ultimate delivery of knowledge transformation:

‘The cognitive learning strategy of comprehension-monitoring along with longer writing assignments, essay writings and research papers for example, should build on the short assignments and be linked to the higher-order learning objectives of complex application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation, or “knowledge transformation’’.’ (pp. 69-70).

Through a structured assessment regime the students receive regular standardised feedback and are able to link objectives in the short assessments to the ultimate aim of synthesis and evaluation. 

Figure 5: A survey of Level 3 Economic Dissertation assessment weightings

(Written dissertation:Coursework components; Percentage of institutions)

Pertinent to the module’s approach to assessment are Tolstoy’s words:

‘every teacher must... by regarding every imperfection in the pupil's comprehension, not as a defect of the pupil, but as a defect of his own instruction, endeavour to develop in himself the ability of discovering new methods...’. (Schön, 1983, p. 66).

This introduces a key distinction in direction that is implemented by this module, whereby the up-skilling of both students and staff are inherently integrated within the assessment strategy. Hughes’s (2007) recommendation that academics should become ‘lead learners’ illustrates this philosophy, and it is one that is explored further by Rich (2010) who refers to a supervisory model in which the academic, by supervising a number of students doing dissertations in a related area, generates an ‘effective learning community’.

The creation of this ‘learning community’ could hypothetically create dissonance. There is a plethora of evidence suggesting that students enjoy dissertations for the sense of individual ownership that they create (e.g. see the review of undergraduate social science students by Todd et al., 2004). A team framework may compromise this sense of achievement. Thus it is a delicate balancing act that establishes a supportive communal environment that is not detrimental to individual intellectual endeavour and the most effective solution was created by Swansea’s Geography department. Here the supervisor role is replaced by a ‘dissertation support group (DSG)’ mechanism. Comprising of up to 10 students, the DSG experience is intended to provide support and facilitate a forum in which students can share and make considered decisions about their own dissertation research. Each DSG meets regularly to raise and consider issues that arise from individual dissertation projects. There are two types of meetings, which are detailed below:

  1. Peer-group meetings, where you meet without your mentor to discuss your research.
  2. Mentored group meetings, where your mentor is present to offer advice.

Peer-group meetings form the most immediate support mechanism, providing a forum for seeking and receiving advice on the challenges that dissertation research poses at any given time. Students are able to use these meetings for productive and genial exchange governed by the following principles:

  • solicit comments on their research ideas and progress, seeking suggestions for improvement;
  • ‘brainstorm’ ideas relating to both conceptual and practical aspects of their research;
  • share ideas to help formulate an appropriate research design and methodology, involving constructive but critical review of their analysis;
  • seek constructive solutions to any difficulties that they are encountering;
  • collectively agree an agenda to take to the next mentored group meeting;

Mentored group meetings are thus student driven and structured to address the issues that have previously been ‘thrashed out’ and collated in peer-group meetings. Within mentored meetings students can expect the following:

  • advice on issues previously identified at peer-group meetings;
  • discussion of progress;
  • guidance about the available literature on a specific topic;
  • instruction in methodological techniques covered in other modules.

Assessment methods are then necessarily delimited by the creation of incentives to ensure that students fully embrace this system, take control of their own learning, and guarantee that meetings are constructive. This is achieved by a two-tier system:

Creating a log of DSG meetings

 ‘DSG Meeting Forms’ are completed individually at the time each of the DSG meetings occurs. The full sequence of forms should therefore provide a clear and detailed record of issues relating to individual research progress, as raised and discussed during DSG meetings. Forms should be regarded as a key tool for the student, enabling a process of reasoning and action that will assist the development of the dissertation. The ‘Issues to Raise’ section should be completed prior to each meeting, and records the matters arising from individual experience that the student wishes to discuss with the group. Similarly, the ‘Solutions Discussed’ section (to be completed during or soon after the meeting) need only contain detailed notes pertinent to individual concerns, although bullet points on the main concerns of the meeting are also required. When considering advice given by peers in response to individual concerns, any suggestions proffered must be recorded, as must any reflections upon the (in)adequacy of the solutions proposed, and the subsequent actions that would be required to fulfill them must also be documented. It is expected that the student be candid about group discussions and report occasions when they feel that the DSG has not facilitated any useful recommendations. They must, however, construct a reasoned critique of any advice that is considered flawed or inadequate.

Reflective summary

This is a two-page summary of how the DSG operated (including what worked, what did not, a description of individual contributions and how other group members assisted). Thus this mark is an individual score that is yet derived entirely from the context of mutual support. Frequently, students are found to discover common concerns and working out how to overcome these problems in a group is believed a valuable skill that takes them beyond university into the world of work. However, it also allows for a critique of the very methods employed by the course. This ensures that assessment feedback is multi-directional, with students becoming the primary agent of suggestion that improves course design.

A statistical comparison of the impact of the assessment changes on student performance, in contrast to the other case studies considered in this chapter, is made more complex by the time differences involved. With the traditional dissertation module suspended several years ago, subsequent changes in entry requirements could suggest that there are differences in mean capability. Further, whilst the traditional dissertation was typically taken by students on B.Sc. schemes, the new module is only compulsory for B.A. students. This could perceivably impact on the characteristics of the cohort. To investigate the impact of the changes on student achievement we therefore run a simple regression with controls for gender, degree scheme, A-Level entry points and the change in assessment methods. To ensure that we are comparing like with like, the marks for the Topics in Contemporary Economics module are restricted to obtainment in the final dissertation report (with all other assessment elements excluded). The estimates confirm the validity of controlling for degree scheme and A-Level entry requirements. However, they also confirm that the change in design has had a significantly positive effect on student performance. Other things being equal, they suggest that the student mark increases buy approximately 7.5 percentage points.

ii. Module 2: Applied Econometrics

The other module to be considered in this section, Applied Econometrics, was fortunate to receive funding from the Economics Network via its New Learning and Teaching Projects scheme in June 2010. The underlying motivation here was the desire to construct a module with by learning-by-doing and assessment-by-doing at its very heart. To that end, the module sought to examine students’ understanding and mastery of econometric tools and techniques via the submission of six projects, with the marks of the best five counting towards the mark awarded with a weighting of 20 per cent each. Given the range of material to be covered, the new module was introduced as a year-long, 30 credit unit to be compulsory for B.Sc. schemes (Economics, Business Economics, Financial Economics etc.) and optional for B.A. schemes. A range of objectives was identified, including (i) increased ownership and engagement on the part of the students via the use of continual project-based assessment, (ii) the development of subject-specific and transferable skills, (iii) the use of topics to enhance understanding on other modules taken by students and (iv) the more appropriate incorporation of developments in information technology. On the latter point, it is perhaps surprising that many departments seek to examine the ability of students to undertake and interpret econometric analysis via paper-based examination hall-based assessment, rather than practical exercises with data. Recent decades have witnessed astonishing advances in the computational power available to those interested in undertaking applied econometric analysis. As a consequence, the nature of econometric research has changed dramatically. To ensure students are provided with a true or relevant picture of what econometrics is and what it can achieve, these developments must be incorporated in its teaching. Alternatively expressed, consider the following quote from an interview with Professor David Hendry:

‘The IBM 360/65 was at UCL, so I took buses to and from LSE. Once, when rounding the Aldwych, the bus cornered faster than I anticipated, and my box of cards went flying. The program could only be re-created because I had numbered every one of the cards’ (2004, pp. 784–85).

The above quote presents a clearly dated picture of econometric practice in comparison to the current environment of large workshops containing high powered PCs providing access to a wealth of sophisticated, user-friendly software packages and a plethora of data sources and sites. However, if assessment of students is conducted via paper-based tests in examination halls involving discussion of the Durbin-Watson or Goldfeld-Quandt tests of the 1950s and 1960s, it is difficult to argue that assessment has kept pace with its underlying subject matter. This provided a major motivation for the present module and shaped both delivery and assessment for the module in an attempt to capture and fully utilise these developments. As a result, formal sessions involved the application and evaluation of a range of modern methods and techniques, with replication and evaluation of published research being one element of this to allow students to become more involved in the research they study. In line with its stated overriding objective, assessment followed a similar pattern. As a specific example of this, the delivery of, and assessment, relating to unit root analysis can be considered. As part of the delivery this year (2010–11), students were provided with a workshop exercise involving the replication of empirical results in a well known article in the Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics. The subsequent assessment relating to this particular part of the ‘unit root section’ of the module adopted a similar approach, with an element of it requiring students to examine data employed in research published the Journal of Applied Econometrics to both replicate and extend work undertaken. In addition to providing students with practical experience to supplement lecture material, this form of exercise clearly illustrates the relevance of the methods considered and allows students not just to read but to become actively involved with published academic research that they study. In a similar fashion, later analysis of cointegration has been assessed not in a mechanical formulistic manner, but instead via analysis of the UK housing market to explore interdependencies and dynamic relationships between regions in the context of a particular posited economic theory. In each case, the intention was to demonstrate the relevance of economics (econometrics) within assessment via application to topical and important issues. As such the undeniably important formalities required for analysis are combined with a clearly defined goal or objective to (hopefully) overcome students becoming daunted or overwhelmed by the mathematical aspects of econometrics.

The ‘learning-by-doing’ emphasised here has been considered previously, at least to one extent, in the ‘teaching of statistics’ literature (see Smith, 1998; Wiberg, 2009). Similarly, in common with work such as Wiberg (2009), the current revised module was inspired by Kolb’s experiential approach to learning. As is apparent from a reading of Kolb (1984) and Kolb and Fry (1975), Kolb’s learning circle has four stages comprising of concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualisation, and active experimentation. This provides an excellent basis for the structuring of the newly proposed module which presents students with specific examples of econometrics in action. With the present module, the concrete experience appears in computer workshops before reflection occurs in subsequent workshop and lecture sessions. The final steps of abstract conceptualisation and active experimentation are then covered primarily via the project-based assignments set for the students to undertake.

In light of the above discussion, two obvious issues concern the extent to which other institutions employ coursework in their assessment of econometrics for final year undergraduates and how the changes introduced at Swansea have fared. With regard to the former point, this is illustrated by the results presented in Figure 6 where the examination: coursework split for the departments surveyed are provided. The most popular form of assessment is clearly via end of module examination only, with very few departments considering a module with even as much as 50 per cent coursework. Of the departments examined, one institution (which corresponds to 3 per cent of the institutions included) did employ assessment via coursework only. However, this was on the basis of a single piece of coursework rather than multiple projects each designed to address particular elements of the module. With regard to the final 12 per cent of departments surveyed, 3 per cent did employ a mix of examination and coursework which was not specified (N/S) while 9 per cent did not provide final-year econometrics.

Considering the impact of these changes upon observed module outcomes at Swansea, Table 2 presents number of students enrolled on the Applied Econometrics module, the increase in the mean module mark following the introduction of revisions to the module and the average difference between the marks obtained by students on the Applied Econometrics module and their marks elsewhere. Again, the impact of any single underlying factor is difficult to quantify as a number of changes have occurred. In addition to assessment changing in nature and frequency, the number of students enrolled on the module changed as a result of the module becoming compulsory on some schemes, and the weighting trebled from 10 to 30 credits. However, the results are relatively straightforward to interpret, to some extent at least. First, a 10 per cent point increase in the mean module mark is apparent in the year following assessment changes. In addition, the difference between the average mark obtained by students on this module and their marks elsewhere has increased from 1.7 percentage points to 9.2 percentage points. By comparing the marks on this module with the average obtained by students elsewhere, a cohort effect is controlled for, to some extent at least.

To assess student opinion on the revised module, specific questionnaires were circulated in addition to standard in-house student questionnaires employed for all modules. This supplemented anecdotal evidence obtained and the discussions of student-staff committee meetings. However, a further extremely revealing source of information on student opinion utilised was an Economics Network Focus Group specific to the module which was conducted in February 2011. The results of these alternative methods produced some very pleasing feedback. Summarising these, it can be noted that students welcomed the introduction of the revised assessment framework as a means of:

  • Increasing engagement and ownership: it was noted that hard work resulted in increased understanding and good marks.
  • Embedding knowledge: it was stated that in contrast to preparing for formal examination, the new scheme allows knowledge to be gained and, importantly, retained. Comments included ‘you’re actually remembering it and learning, so if anyone asked me about my course I am going to explain it well… maybe to a potential employer’.
  • Providing motivation for study and highlighting the relevance of material covered: a strong emphasis was placed upon providing a clear demonstration of the relevance and importance of econometrics within the assessment process. The feedback overwhelming supported this with comments such as: ‘You actually get something that I can apply rather than this is the knowledge and that’s the end of that’ and students having ‘a good sense of achievement’.
  • Increasing the effectiveness and use of feedback: this has proved to be a very positive development. As feedback on projects is provided ahead of the submission of further projects, the form of assessments upon which feedback is provided matches that which is to be undertaken subsequently. This contrasts to standard modules where feedback on coursework is often taken onboard ahead of subject assessment in an examination environment. The comments refer positively to generic and individual feedback, its usefulness for later assessment, and comment upon its speed, detail and descriptive nature.

Figure 6: A survey of Level 3 Econometrics assessment weightings

(Examination: Coursework component; Percentage of institutions)

Table 2

Level-3 Applied Econometrics
Student Numbers, Mean Mark and Relative Module Performance



Increase in Mean Mark

Average Difference





2010–2011: Introduction of Project-Based Assessment






2.4 Concluding remarks and some advice

The above discussion has highlighted the objectives, alternative forms and effectiveness of assessment. From consideration of this, and the case studies presented, a number of issues worthy of consideration for use in improving assessment provision are apparent. The most prominent of these concern ‘student-control’, the frequency of assessment and its relevance. These are discussed in turn below.

Introduction of an element of student control in assessment

The purpose of assessment is to increase knowledge, achieve learning objectives, and generally improve the student experience. However, whatever way this is expressed, the student is obviously at the centre of this and to offer the student some control over their learning outcomes and experiences is clearly to be welcomed. Using ‘the best of’ option in assessment, for example, is one means of allowing students to exercise some control over their assessment by omitting a lower scoring module.

Frequency of assessment and increased engagement

Assessment can clearly be employed as a method of drawing students into a module by assessing understanding and considering independent work to prompt consideration of what is covered and why. To increase engagement, frequent assessment has a clear role to play as evidenced in a more simplistic manner by the level 1 mini-tutorial exercises considered in one case study, and at a higher level 3 with the repeated points of assessment contained in the final-year dissertation case study. By increasing the frequency of assessment students can more fully appreciate the relevance of the material considered and become more involved in their studies.

Making it relevant

This operates at two levels. First there is the ‘content level’. If assessment has a role in ensuring learning objectives are achieved, assessment must therefore have clear relevance. In short, assessment should be able to readily fill the blanks in the following: ‘This assessment considers the use/properties/application of ______, as it is important to understand this because ______.’ Assessment that is dry, overly theoretical or archaic will clearly have a negative impact upon student engagement and performance. Attempts to reinforce relevance of assessment by highlighting real world application or policy relevance clearly provides a means of demonstrating the worth of the material considered thereby motivating students. This is reflected in the case studies above with Applied Econometrics, for example, linking consideration of econometric tools and techniques to analysis and understanding of, inter alia, the housing markets, international inflation dynamics and labour market outcomes.

At another level, relevance of assessment can be considered in terms of the manner in which is undertaken. Again, the case studies above can be considered. If modules are topical, their assessment must be also. For quantitative disciplines, this is most apparent as advances in technology and data availability should be reflected. In short, discussion of methods is not appropriate as a sole means of assessment, when everything required to employ the methods is at hand.

3. Where next?

Resources available on the Economics Network website include:

(i) Assessment and monitoring case studies:

(ii) Smith, P. ‘Undergraduate Dissertations in Economics’

(iii) Miller, N. ‘Alternative forms of formative and summative assessment’

For in-depth pedagogical analysis:

Bloom, B., Engelhart, M., Furst, E., Hill, W. and Krathwohl, D. (1956) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals; Handbook I: Cognitive Domain, New York: Longmans, Green.

Weinstein C. and Mayer, R. (1986) ‘The teaching of learning strategies’, in Wittrock, M. (ed.) Handbook of Research on Teaching, New York: MacMillan.

For US analysis into different assessment forms:

Myers, S.C., Nelson, M.A. and Stratton, R.W. (2011) ‘Assessment of the Undergraduate Economics Major: A National Survey’, Journal of Economic Education, Vol. 42(2), pp. 195–9. DOI:10.1080/00220485.2011.555722

Becker, W. (2000) ‘Teaching economics in the 21st Century’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 14(1), 109–19. DOI:10.1257/jep.14.1.109

Walstad, W. (2001) ‘Improving assessment in university economics’, Journal of Economic Education, Vol. 32(3), pp. 281–94. DOI:10.1080/00220480109596109

4. Top Tips

When considering different methods of assessment the instructor should also consider issues of frequency.

  • As frequency increases, the work burden of the instructor may increase, but the gains in terms of module performance can be substantial.

There is no ‘ideal’ assessment method and degree programmes should be reviewed according to the breadth of the portfolio in assessment methods, with variability in design providing opportunities to enhance student performance.

Oral and written forms of assessment allow for disclosure of life-skills pertinent to the world beyond academia.

Over-reliance on any one assessment form, such as end-of-term examinations, can encourage the perception that students are not in full control over their degree outcome (potentially harming student opinion toward the quality of the learning experience).

Retention of knowledge, demonstrating higher ordered thinking, should be a critical aspect of assessment choice.

5. References

Allgood, S. (2001) ‘Grade targets and teaching innovations’, Economics of Education Review, Vol. 20 (5), pp. 485–93. DOI:10.1016/S0272-7757(00)00019-4

Bergstrom, T.C. and Miller, J.H. (1997) Experiments with Economic Principles, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Crowe, D. and Youga, J. (1986) ‘Using writing as a tool for learning economics’, Journal of Economic Education, Vol. 17, pp. 218–22.

Dynan, L. and Cate, T. (2009) ‘The impact of writing assignments on student learning:  Should written assignments be structured or unstructured?’ International Review of Economics Education, Vol. 8(1), pp.62-86.

Ethridge, D.E. (2004) Research Methodology in Applied Economics, Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Gerald, S. (2009) ‘Tweaching: Teaching and learning in 140 characters or less’, SIDLIT Conference Proceedings. Paper 14.

Grimes, P., Millea, M. and Woodruff, T. (2004) ‘Grades: Who's to blame? Student evaluation of teaching and locus of control’, Journal of Economic Education, Vol. 35(2), pp. 129–47. DOI:10.3200/JECE.35.2.129-147

Hamlin, J. and Janssen, S. (1987) ‘Active learning in large introductory sociology courses’, Teaching Sociology, Vol. 15, pp. 45–57.

Hendry, D. (2004) ‘The E.T. Interview: Professor David Hendry’, Econometric Theory, Vol. 20, pp. 743–804. DOI:10.1017/S0266466604204078

Hughes, P. (2007) ‘Learning about learning or learning to learn’. In A. Campbell and L. Norton (eds), Learning, Teaching and Assessing in Higher Education: Developing Reflective Practice (pp. 9–20), Exeter, England: Learning Matters.

Kelley, A. (1973) ‘Individualizing education through the use of technology in higher education’, Journal of Economic Education,  Vol. 4(2), pp. 77–89.

Kolb, D. (1984) Experiential learning experience as a source of learning and development, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Kolb, D. and Fry, R. (1975) ‘Toward an applied theory of experiential learning’, in Cooper, C. (ed.) Theories of Group Process, London: John Wiley.

Light, R. (1992) The Harvard Assessment Seminars, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Graduate School of Education and Kennedy School of Government, Second Report.

Rabin, M. (1998) ‘Psychology and economics’, Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 36(1), pp. 11–46.

Rich, M. (2010) ‘Embedding Reflective Practice in Undergraduate Business and Management Dissertations’, International Journal of Management Education, Vol. 9(1), pp. 57–66. DOI:10.3794/ijme.91.216

Santos, J. and Lavin, A. (2004) ‘Do as I Do, Not as I Say: Assessing outcomes when students think like economists’, Journal of Economic Education, Vol. 35, 148–61. DOI:10.3200/JECE.35.2.148-161

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